Demand of the question
Introduction. Contextual introduction.
Body. Measures taken by the Government to reap the demographic dividend.
Conclusion. Way forward.
Demographic dividend refers to economic growth potential that results from demographic transition i.e. shift towards increased working age population. The demographic dividend underscores the fact that increased labour supply will increase the production of goods and services on one hand and declining child dependency ratio will boost savings and investment on the other. The labour force participation rate (LFPR) (section of the working population in the age group of 16-64) stood at 49.8% in 2017-18, falling sharply from 55.9% in 2011-12 which is a cause of concern. To reap demographic dividend Government has taken many steps.
Following measures are taken by the Government to reap the demographic dividend:
|Measures to enhance skills and productivity||● Setting up of National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) under Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana to offer meaningful, industry-relevant, skill based training to the Indian youth as well as a government certification on successful completion of training to help them secure a job in future.|
● Improving expertise to people from minority communities in their traditional arts is done under USTAAD scheme.
● Enhancing the skills is done under Skill India Mission.
● Pradhan Mantri Yuva Yojana aims to educate and equip entrepreneurs.
● Sustainable Action for Transforming Human Capital (SATH) of NITI aayog, focusses on two main sectors —Education and Health and to build three ‘Role Model’ States.
|Improving employability||● Initiatives as SETU (Self employment and talent utilisation) and Atal Innovation Mission help in fostering innovation|
● Schemes as start up India, stand up India strive towards developing entrepreneurship qualities in people.
|Improving educational performance||● Along with the Right to Education Act, a number of Scholarship schemes are in operation to encourage enrolment and learning levels among different groups.|
● Initiatives such as SWAYAM (MOOC) provide quality education to large number of students.
● Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan aims at providing Universal primary education and retention.
● Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan aims to correct regional imbalances in higher level education and provide for quality state institutions.
● Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat aims to improve language development and increase interest in mathematics.
|Focus on low-income population||● Initiatives such as Grameen Kaushal Vikaas Yojana focus on skilling rural people in agro-allied industry.|
● Schemes such as Nai Manzil provide integrated input of formal education and skill training along with certification.
|Women’s employment||● Initiated the National Literacy Mission to raise the literacy rate to 80% and reduce the gender gap to less than 10%.|
● As demographic transition results in greater women coming into the workforce schemes as relaxed age limit for higher education.
● Nai Roshni focus on improving leadership qualities of Women.
If India has to reap the benefits of ‘demographic dividend’ in the years ahead, it is imperative that investments in social infrastructure by way of education, skill development, training and provision of health care facilities are made to enhance productivity of workforce and welfare of the population. Though India has initiated all pertinent programmes and policies, to make the dream of demographic dividend a reality the key lies in their effective and efficient implementation.