|Demand of the question
Introduction. Contextual Introduction.
Body. How government schemes for vulnerable lead to their exclusion in establishing businesses in urban economies?
Conclusion. Way forward.
Vulnerable and backward communities like SC/ST face various level of discrimination in the society. To mitigate these and to provide an equal opportunity to all, the government executes various schemes. Government has mandated protections for various communities in the form of various schemes like MGNREGA, reservation for jobs and seats in educational institutions etc. However, even after various schemes, these communities suffer from poor representation in urban economies in the form of jobs in private sector and in pursuing entrepreneurship.
How government schemes for vulnerable lead to their exclusion in establishing businesses in urban economies?
- Government jobs preference: Educational incentives like reservation and lower threshold of marks make academic professions and government jobs more attractive. Reservation in promotion in government jobs makes them more attractive for reserved communities.
- Impact on abilities: Protecting social resources for backward communities has kept them away from competition leading to less improvement in skills, literacy and other abilities required to come into business. For example, MGNREGA provides 100 days of work for the needy, but it doesn’t focus on their skill development.
- Social prejudices: Social prejudices hinder their entrepreneurial activities. The schemes have limited success in removing social prejudices against them and thus they face hurdles while setting up businesses. Schemes like reservation in government jobs are seen as discriminatory by well off sections of the society and thus they do not cooperate with vulnerable sections or effort made by them in business.
- Reduced entrepreneurial spirit: Guaranteed privileges through scheme also kills the hunger and opportunistic spirit among vulnerable leading to complacency. They find no incentive or motivation to work and establish businesses. For example, these vulnaerable sections like Dalit instead of going to set up businesses and start ups seek to get a job under reservation and find no motivation to take up business activities.
- No focus on structural discrimination: There are some structural discrimination faced by these vulnerable groups.These schemes focus only providing privileges and not removing structural discrimination. In India, members of gender, caste, class, and ethnic identity experience structural discrimination that has adversely impacted on their ability to do business. Women also face dual discrimination being members of specific caste, class or cultural group apart from experiencing gendered susceptibilities.
Thus, various government schemes have prevented vulnerable to reap benefits of economic opportunities outside of cities. More efforts are needed to push them for entrepreneurial activities. A push and motivation is all needed through raising awareness and collaboration with various non-governmental organisations and local community.