|Demand of the question|
Introduction. Contextual introduction.
Body. Various types of revolutions in Agriculture after Independence in India. Significance of these revolutions in poverty alleviation and food security.
Conclusion. Way forward.
India is primarily an agricultural economy and majority of people are still dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. As per 2018, agriculture employed 50% of the Indian work force and contributed 17–18% to country’s GDP. After independence, development of agriculture has been assured by various revolutions supported by government.
Various types of revolutions in Agriculture after Independence in India:
|Green Revolution||● This revolution led to tremendous rise in production of food grains, especially wheat, by the use of high-yielding varieties of seeds, fertilisers and pesticides.|
● In the agriculture sector in the decade of 1960 India started green revolution, and high yielding variety seeds were used in wheat, rice, maize. This experiment gave success and extended to most parts of the country.
|White Revolution||● Operation Flood (1970), an initiative of the National Dairy Development Board has led to revolution in milk production in India.|
● The world’s largest dairy development programme transformed India from a milk deficient nation to world’s largest milk producer.
● This has introduced in the new breeding technologies, high quality fodder, vaccination, veterinary facilities improved.
|Blue Revolution||● This revolution focussed on the management of fisheries sector.|
● It has led to phenomenal increase in both fish production and productivity from aquaculture and fisheries resources of the inland and marine fisheries.
|Other revolutions||Other revolutions are also significant includes:|
● Yellow revolution (oil seed production).
● Golden fibre revolution (jute).
● Golden revolution (horticulture).
● Silver fibre revolution (Cotton).
● Red revolution (meat production).
Significance of these revolutions in poverty alleviation and food security:
- Poverty: These innovations in agriculture have lifted millions of people out of poverty by generating rural income opportunities for farmers, farm labourers, and also reduced prices for consumers.
- Food security: India has become self sufficient in food grain production with the help of green revolution. Green revolution increased the amount food grains enormously, with this India came out of PL-480 agreements, through which India imports food grains from USA.
- Nutritional security: The exponential rise in milk production has led to nutritional security among the masses. Milk production in India has increased from 22 million tonne in 1970 to 156 million tonne in 2015-16. As a result, the per capita availability of milk in India is 337 gram/day as compared to average world per capita availability of 229 gram/day. Blue revolution increased the sea food production. With this fishermen community get benefited and also provide food and nutritional security.
- Women empowerment: Also these revolutions provided income and employment to women leading to women empowerment helping millions to come out of poverty.
To further carry on the momentum of these programmes and assure food security in the long run in the face of ever increasing population, there is an urgent need for an ‘evergreen revolution’ that should focus on all round development of the agriculture sector. Recently govt started ever green revolution which focuses all aspects of agriculture pertaining to various products, it is also called as rainbow revolution. It also extends the results of green revolution eastern part of the country, it is a technology driven scheme.