|Demand of the question|
Introduction. Contextual Introduction.
Body. Mention the basic tenets on which the two political systems are based.
Conclusion. Way forward.
India and USA are the two large representative democracies in the world. In USA, democracy got its full swing with the drafting of the US Constitution in 1789 while the democracy in India is partially a result of British rule followed by the enforcement of the new, modern and living constitution, framed after Independence.
The basic tenets on which the two political systems based are:
- Written constitution: Both US and India have a written constitution based on which the federal political structure has been set up and both federal governments are functioning. Both constitutions have provisions for amending the constitution to meet the growing socio, political and economic needs and demands of their respective countries.
- Bill of Rights and Fundamental Rights: The US constitution has ensured the fundamental rights of its citizens like right to equality, freedom, right against exploitation, freedom of religion, cultural and educational rights, etc. The Indian constitution has guaranteed the fundamental rights of the people through articles 14 to 34 in Part III.
- Supremacy of the Federal or Union Government: Both in US and India, states which have acceded to the Federal set up have no unilateral power to secede from the Federal Government or the Union Government. The law enacted by the Federal or Union Government will have overriding effect over the law enacted by the states on the same subject.
- Division of Labor and Separation of Powers: The executive governs the country, the legislature enacts laws and the judiciary administers justice. President of US is the chief executive head of US, whereas the Union cabinet headed by the Prime Minister is the real chief executive body in India.
- Powers of Checks and Balances: Though there exists a clear-cut division of labor known as separation of powers into executive, legislature and judiciary in both countries, still there is a threat. to democracy.The powers of checks and balances have been the effective mechanism both in the US and in India in safeguarding the democracy in both countries.
- Rule of Law and Republicanism: Both, the countries have written constitutions ensuring rule of law and guaranteeing fundamental rights to their citizens. Both the countries are republican in nature and provide adult franchise to the citizens.
- Independent Judiciary: Both the political systems provide for an independent judiciary to interpret the constitution and enforce the law. However, in India single system of courts enforces both the central laws as well as the state laws but in USA, the federal laws are enforced by the federal judiciary and the state laws are enforced by the state judiciary.
Thus, though the US and Indian political systems are similar in many respects, yet they are the product of their unique history and socio-economic milieu, and varying political culture. However, they should cooperate with each other on many fronts to provide a hope to the humanity which is facing numerous challenges.