|Demand of the question|
Introduction. Contextual Introduction.
Body. Discuss various new age threats to Indian security. Mention how India should prepare itself for these threats?
Conclusion. Way forward.
India constitutes the world’s largest democracy. With rise in modern technologies and penetration, India confronts a wide spectrum of challenges to its security. Today national security challenges include not only traditional military and nuclear threats, but a multitude of other threats, including terrorism, cyber security, demographic challenges etc. These challenges for the security demand proactive response and preparedness in the coming years.
Various new age threats to Indian security:
- Cyber-threats: The initiatives like Digital India initiatives have brought about a paradigm shift in terms of connectivity. While greater connectivity promises wider services, it also paves the way for the emergence of new vulnerabilities. Leading companies in energy, finance and other sectors are targeted by new-age cyber criminals. As per CERT-IN, one cybercrime was reported every 10 minutes in India during 2017 which is quite alarming.
- Climate change as a destabilising threat: One of the most critical issues concerning India’s security is climate change and its impact. Dwindling freshwater resources has led to many inter-state water tussles, one of which was witnessed in the Cauvery row. Such endeavours may not only affect the environment but also lead to a threat to internal security.
- New form ofTerrorism: Terrorism is taking new shape with increased incidents of lone wolf attacks. The recent London terror attack, Manchester terror attack are scary. They are neither limited by territorial boundaries, nor do they recognise the concept of sovereignty. The use of suicide bombers, sophisticated technology and tactics such as leaderless movements, sleeper cells networks have made it increasingly difficult for the governments to get rid of terrorist groups.
- Demographic changes and their consequences: India is sitting at a huge demographic dividend in terms of its 65% population is in the age group of 15-35 years of age. While it can be a huge economic advantage, if not provided with suitable opportunities can turn into a worse nightmare. Although the Indian economy is growing substantially, India’s rate of employment has actually declined. This may lead to youth turning to crime and drugs, which is dangerous to society.
- New technologies: Although technology has immense usefulness for humanity, it has a harmful impact too. For example, new technologies like drones, transparent cameras, robotics etc. have the potential of snooping into India’s security set up. Pakistani drone was recently fired down by Indian army in Rajasthan as an example of this. This poses new challenges to Indian security.
How should India prepare itself for these threats?
- Strengthening security enforcement agencies: Security enforcement agencies must be strengthened with enough powers and modern technology, to tackle the new age threats. The security personnel must also be trained in cyber warfare to tackle any threat to cyber security of the nation.
- Climate action: Environment protection and nurturing is an urgent need of the hour, as a destabilised environment can lead to a tipping point. State must be prepared for natural disasters that may threaten the survival of the state and its population.
- Public-private partnership: The study titled ‘New Age Crime’ says,India needs at least $4 billion in public-private partnership mode by 2019 to address cybercrime-related challenges at individual and organisational levels. This is needed for upgrading technology, training cyber professionals, counselling of victims and creating cyber cells. Thus, the government must make efforts to work with the private sector.
- Smart policing: Police must use real-time technology and data analysis to pursue smarter policing. It must have the capability to receive crime tips from the public in real time through smartphone apps and create detailed crime and complaint mapping. That data must be used with appropriate strategies designed to reduce crime and disorder.
- Regulations: Proper guidelines and rules must be framed for the use of technologies. Rules and regulations of usage of drones is a right step in this direction. Government must involve all the stakeholders while framing rules and regulations in order to prevent any harm to individuals privacy and freedom.
To meet the diverse likely security challenges and to successfully confront all challenges, India requires a clear cut strategy. It is important to synergise our diplomatic, economic, political, social and military strengths. Government has made various efforts like creating a post of National Cyber Security Coordinator, Cyber Swachhta Kendra, Khelo India initiative for youth etc. This will help India to tackle new age threats in a comprehensive manner.