[Answered]What is naxalism? Discuss various reasons of naxalism and government efforts to root out naxalism from the country.

Demand of the question

Introduction. What is naxalism?

Body. Discuss the reasons behind naxalite movement. Mention Government’s approach against Naxalism.

Conclusion. Way forward.

The Naxalism, is a term used to define a violent activities on behalf of landless labourers and tribal people against landlords and others by some individuals and groups. The Naxalite movement came to the forefront in the late 1960s, when Naxalbari became famous for the left-wing revolt that took place in West Bengal. Since then, it is perceived as the greatest threat to law and order within Indian. The movement has now advanced to the hilly and forest regions of around 8 different states, with more than 150 districts are believed to be under its direct influence. Inspite of Naxalism being termed as the biggest problem in Adivasi areas, the social problems are actually much wider in the form of unemployment, poverty and an untold number of socio-economic injustices.

 Reasons behind naxalite movement:

  1. Tribal discontent: The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 deprives tribals, who depend on forest produce for their living, from even cutting a bark.Massive displacement of tribal population in the naxalism-affected states due to development projects, mining operations and other reasons.
  2. Easy Targets: Such people who do not have any source of living are taken into naxalism by Maoists.Maoists provide arms and ammunitions and money to such people.
  3. Gaps in the socio-economic system of the country: Government measuring its success on the basis of number of violent attacks rather than the development done in the naxal-affected areas.
  4. Absence of strong technical intelligence: There is poor technical intelligence when it comes to tackling naxalism. Infrastructural problems, for instance, some villages are not yet connected properly with any communication network are there which hinders action against naxalites.
  5. No Follow-Up from administration: It is seen that even after police takes hold of a region, administration fails to provide essential services to the people of that region.
  6. Confusion over tackling naxalism as a social issue or as a security threat: State governments considering naxalism as the central government’s issue and thus are not taking any initiatives to fight it.

Government’s approach against Naxalism:

  1. Operation Green Hunt: started in 2010 and massive deployment of security forces was done in the naxal-affected areas. From 223 districts that were affected due to naxalism in the year 2010, the number has come down to 90 in nine years.
  2. Aspirational Districts Programme: The Government’s approach is to deal with Left Wing Extremism in a holistic manner, in the areas of security, development, ensuring rights and entitlements of local communities, improvement in governance and public perception management.
  3. Operation ‘SAMADHAN’ is the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA)’s initiative to deal the Naxal problem. The acronym SAMADHAN stands for Smart leadership, Aggressive strategy, Motivation and training, Actionable intelligence, Dashboard Based KPIs (key performance indicators) and KRAs (key result areas), Harnessing technology, Action plan for each theater, and No access to financing.
  4. Technological interventions: The MHA has suggested the use of trackers for weapons, and bio-metrics in smart guns.Unique Identification number (UID) for Gelatine sticks and explosives.At least one UAV or Mini UAV is deployed for each of the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) battalions deployed in the Maoist hotbed.
  5. Joint Task Forces for operations along inter-State boundaries to be set up. Better inter-state coordination and intelligence sharing.
  6. ‘Police’ and ‘Public Order’ being State subjects, action on maintenance of law and order lies primarily in the domain of the State Governments. For this government has took following steps:
  • Filling up critical infrastructure gaps under the Scheme for Special Infrastructure in Left Wing Extremism affected States.
  • Assistance in training of State Police through the Ministry of Defence.
  • Assistance in community policing and civic action programmes.
  1. National Policy and Action Plan to address Left Wing Extremism’, aimed at eliminating the menace in the shortest possible timeframe is in place.

Way forward:

  1. Good governance: The presence of Naxals in the country also reveals the loopholes in the law and order of the country which has failed to curb the menace.Central government needs to implement a coherent national strategy to end Naxalism.
  2. Dialogue: Dialogues between the Naxal leaders, and the government officials can be a way work out a solution.The government should initiate sincere dialogue with Naxalites.
  3. Employment: Generating more employment and increase wages is important. Insecure livelihood and unemployment in the areas have left the people with no option but to join the Naxals.
  4. Rehabilitation and resettlement: Mining grounds, irrigation areas, industries, etc., in the area without any provision for the resettlement of the displaced people has only added to the woes ofthe poor. There needs to be more emphasis on rehabilitation of these affected population
  5. Remove disparity: Economic disparity and the growing distance between rich and the poor is one of the main problems that has contributed to the growth of Naxalism. This distance needs to be filled to an extent hastily to stop Naxalism.It’s important to prevent these people from falling in the Naxal trap.
  6. Modernize law enforcement agencies: Central government must inroads into these disturbed states with their agencies well-equipped with modern artillery and assist the usually poorly-equipped agencies of the state.

Through a holistic approach focusing on development and security related interventions, the LWE problem can be successfully tackled.Civil society and the media should build pressure on the Maoists to eschew violence, join the mainstream and recognise the fact that the socio-economic and political dynamics and aspirations of 21st Century India are far removed from the Maoist world-view.

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