Q.1) What do you mean by Corporate Social Responsibility? Discuss the steps taken by the government in enforcing Corporate Social Responsibility in the private sector.
Corporate social responsibility is a business approach to contributes to sustainable development by delivering economic, social and environmental benefits for all stakeholders.
Steps taken to promote CSR:
- The Companies Act, 2013 made CSR a compulsory act. The Act encourages companies to spend at least 2% of their average net profit in the previous three years on CSR activities.
- MCA has come up with the modified Schedule VII which covers wide range of activities which can be undertaken by the Companies as a part of their CSR initiatives.
- Government is actively seeking the involvement of corporates in various welfare programmes. Eg., Adopt a Heritage project
Q.2) What is dry farming? Discuss the significant features and problems of dry farming in India.
Dryland farming and dry farming encompass specific agricultural techniques for the non-irrigated cultivation of crops.
- Monsoon dependent
- Prevalence of poverty
- Reliance on alternate sources of income
- Located in backward areas of country
- Low agricultural productivity
- Inadequate and uneven distribution of rainfall : In general, the rainfall is low and highly variable which results in uncertain crop yields. Besides its uncertainty, the distribution of rainfall during the crop period is uneven, receiving high amount of rain, when it is not needed and lack of it when crop needs it.
- Late onset and early cessation of rains : Due to late onset of monsoon, the sowing of crop are delayed resulting in poor yields. Sometimes the rain may cease very early in the season exposing the crop to drought during flowering and maturity stages which reduces the crop yields considerably
- Prolonged Dry spells during the crop period : Long breaks in the rainy season is an important feature of Indian monsoon. These intervening dry spells when prolonged during crop period reduces crop growth and yield and when unduly prolonged crops fail.
- Low moisture retention capacity : The crops raised on red soils, and coarse textured soil suffer due to lack of moisture whenever prolonged dry spells occur due to their low moisture holding capacity. Loss of rain occurs as runoff due to undulating and sloppy soils.
- Low Fertility of Soils : Drylands are not only thirsty, but also hungry too. Soil fertility has to be increased, but there is limited scope for extensive use of chemical fertilizers due to lack of adequate soil moisture.
Q.3) To make India next manufacturing hub government must replicate the factors responsible for the development of the IT sector. Elaborate.
To strengthen manufacturing in India:
The new industrial policy aimed at building a globally competitive Indian industry equipped with skill, scale and technology.
- By promoting ‘Make in India’
- It needs to incorporate the use of modern smart technologies such as IOT, artificial intelligence and robotics for advanced manufacturing.
- The Economic Survey 2016-17 pointed out that the richer peninsular states in India will witness a sharp increase in working age populations, followed by a sharp decline. It is an opportunity to address the problems of low Research & Development spending and tough competition from cheap Chinese imports
- Micro, small and medium enterprises sector facing tough competition from cheap imports from China and other countries with which India has free trade agreements
- Any design of industrial policy must appreciate its linkages and interaction with agriculture and services policies
- Integrated Logistics and Manufacturing Zones: Development of Integrated Logistics and Manufacturing Zones (ILMZs) are a perfect model which allows manufacturers and logistics players to co-exist and complement each other’s business
- Focus on innovation and R&D: For future competitiveness, innovation is necessary. The government must link education curriculum with Industry to provide necessary innovation along with skilled workforce
- Simplified tax and regulatory regime: steps to be taken to moderate tax and simplify tax and labour laws
- Large manufacturing area: India needs to build new and large world-class manufacturing areas speedily, especially in the industrial corridors and along the ports. These are critical for the competitiveness needed for being part of the global manufacturing supply chain.
Q.4) The American revolution inspired the French revolution and yet it was markedly different from it. Discuss.
When American colonists won independence from Great Britain in the Revolutionary War, the French, who participated in the war themselves, were both close allies and key participants.
Inspired by American Revolution:
Although the French and American people had several distinct and differing motives for revolting against their ruling governments, some similar causes led to both revolutions, including the following:
- Economic struggles: Both the Americans and French dealt with a taxation system that they found discriminating and unfair. Additionally, France’s involvement in the American Revolution, along with extravagant spending practices by King Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette, left the country on the verge of bankruptcy.
- Royal absolutism: While colonists revolted against the British monarchy, the French aimed to reform the absolute rule of Louis XVI.
- Unequal rights: Like the American colonists, the French felt that specific rights were only granted to certain segments of society, namely the elite and aristocrats.
- During the war in America, allied Frenchmen fought side by side with American soldiers, which, in some cases, meant exchanging values, ideas and philosophies.
Different from AR:
- France, a country on the verge of financial collapse with an outdated feudal system and a wildly unpopular monarchy, was waiting to explode, with or without the American war to serve as an example.
- American Revolution was mainly focused on gaining independence. France wanted to get rid of the French monarchy, the lower classes wanted to enforce equality rather than having the nobles and the king overpower them. Thus FR wanted to change the social system also.
- American Revolution was caused by a majority of the America population becoming unhappy because of how the British were ruling them. French Revolution was started by French’s lower class because they were unhappy with how they were being treated.