Answers: Mains Marathon – UPSC Mains Current Affairs Questions – December 18, 2018


Q.1) ‘The Luxembourg government said it will make all public transportation free by 2020.’ In the light of this statement, analyse what are the challenges India is facing in tackling congestion of vehicles in cities. What are the Indian government initiatives to solve this problem?


Challenges wrt traffic congestion:

  1. Poor urban planning lead to congested roads with many distractions
  2. Lack of driver awareness
  3. Poor design of roads – traffic symbols and diversions
  4. Growing use of private vehicles, both two and four wheelers
  5. Lack of spaces for parking, pedestrians and bicycles


  1. Promoting metro rail transport in major cities
  2. Strengthening transport oriented development
  3. Smart cities which provide technology solutions to traffic problems
  4. Private cab aggregators life uber and ola are coming up with pool rides


Q.2) A ‘Code of Conduct’ for Member of Parliament (MPs) and Member of Legislative Assemblies (MLAs) will be right step in enhancing credibility of Parliament as an institution. Comment.


Vice President M Venkaiah Naidu said that there should be a code of conduct for members both inside and outside legislatures.

Need for a code for legislators:

  1. Legislature holds the role of holding executive accountable; in this, it should display highest efficiency and impartiality
  2. Executive actions to give posts to legislators and ‘pay for votes’ and horse trading go against the ethics of legislature
  3. It helps in fighting defections, ensuring order of the house and bringing back the civility in discourse
  4. The high rate of criminals in politics today can be seen as a symbol for poor ethical standards in politics
  5. It is important to preserve the freedom of expression and thought of legislators while also ensuring their accountability
  6. Also, in order to build a more inclusive society, there is a need to move towards ensuring proportional representation of all groups in the legislatures


Q.3) In order to comprehensively deal with fugitive economic offenders the need is coordination and cooperation at the international level. In the light of this statement, examine the challenges in dealing with the issue and India’s efforts to deal with fugitive economic offenders.



  1. Often, the process of bringing them back involves third countries with which India might not have had an extradition agreement
  2. The legal costs of fighting cases in other countries is huge and deterrent
  3. Crony capitalism and political corruption delay bringing the perpetrators to justice
  4. India is not a signatory to UN convention against torture which is cited to deny extraditions

India’s efforts:

India has recently submitted a framework against fugitive economic offenders. These include:

  1. Strong and active” cooperation among the G-20 nations
  2. Joint efforts to be made by the G20 nations to form a mechanism that denies entry and safe havens to all fugitive economic offenders
  3. Implementation of the principles of United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) and United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organised Crime (UNOTC)
  4. Financial Action Task Force (FATF) should be called upon to assign priority and focus on establishing international co-operation that leads to a timely and comprehensive exchange of information between the competent authorities
  5. FATF should be tasked to formulate a standard definition of fugitive economic offenders
  6. FATF should also develop a set of commonly agreed and standardised procedures related to identification, extradition and judicial proceedings for dealing with fugitive economic offenders
  7. Need for setting up of a common platform for sharing experiences and best practices including
  8. G20 forum should consider initiating work on locating properties of economic offenders


Q.4) Prevalence of widespread ‘begging’ in India sustains on the humanistic values of society but the culture of begging is fraught with many ethical issues. Elaborate.


Ethical issues of begging:

  1. It shows the widespread inequalities in the country
  2. Many young children and girls are being trafficked into this organised crime
  3. Begging violates fundamental rights guaranteed under Art 21 and Art 14 of the constitution
  4. Helping beggars is only a temporary solution; but they are denied shelter, clothing, health and education on a daily basis
  5. Success in gaining money through begging undermines the positive work going on in preventing begging
  6. It further imprisons the person in a world of deceit. In Thames Reach’s phrase, it can literally be “killing with kindness.”
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