Q.1) Shifting of traditional joint family into nuclear family makes elderly emotionally and financially insecure. Explain
The traditional Indian society with an age-old joint family system has been instrumental in safeguarding the social and economic security of the elderly people. The traditional norms and values of Indian society also laid stress on showing respect and providing care for the elderly.
With the emerging prevalence of nuclear family set-ups in recent years, the elderly are likely to be exposed to emotional, physical and financial insecurity in the years to come. There is an upward trend in the elderly staying alone or with spouse only.
- Family care of the elderly seems likely to decrease in the future with the economic development of the nation and modernization
- Lack of financial security to most of the elderly and particularly old women. Pension and social security is also restricted to those who have worked in the public sector or the organized sector of industry
- Social isolation and loneliness has increased
- elderly in urban area rely primarily on hired domestic help to meet their basic needs
- Insurance cover that is elderly sensitive is virtually non- existent in India
- The single most pressing challenge to the welfare of older person is poverty, which is a multiplier of risk for abuse
- Migration of younger generation, lack of proper care in the family, insufficient housing, economic hardship and break-up of joint family have made the old age homes seem more relevant
Q.2) Jammu & Kashmir has the contrast of being the only state in the Indian Union that negotiated in terms of accession. What kind of special concession given to state of Jammu & Kashmir? Why there is demand for abolition of special concession?
The Article 370 of the Indian constitution deals with the provision of certain special powers provided to the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
- Except for Defense, Foreign Affairs, Finance and Communications, the Indian Government needs the State Government’s nod to apply all other laws.
- The central govt. has no power to impose financial emergency in the state. Emergency can be imposed only on the grounds of internal disturbances and imminent danger from a foreign enemy.
- Therefore, the state government has the control on how it needs to govern the state without worrying about the consent of the central government.
- Due to this article, Indian nationals belonging to other states cannot buy land or property in the state of J&K.
- Woman who marries a person belonging to any other state loses her right to ownership; however, this is a contentious matter.
Demands for abolition of concessions:
- There is a clause in Article 370 itself, which says that this law cannot be abolished by anyone other than the J&K constituency.
- it is against the supremacy of the Indian Constitution
- There cannot be two parallel constitutions, one for the Centre and other for the state
- it hinders achieving unity and integrity of India
Q.3) Government has recently approved new National policy on electronics 2019. Describe the reasons behind adaptation of new policy and its important feature?
Need for National Policy on Electronics:
- With the advent of 5G, artificial intelligence and the Internet of Things, India needs a vision document on how to use these digital tools for the growth and development of the country.
- Demand of electronic hardware has increased significantly but the value addition continues to be low in the absence of a robust components manufacturing ecosystem in the country.
- India has entered into Free Trade Agreements (FTA) with Thailand, ASEAN, Korea, Japan, etc., wherein import of electronic hardware from these countries is at preferential duty, lower than normal tariff rate which makes Indian product uncompetitive.
- Domestic electronics hardware manufacturing industry faces several disability factors which makes indigenous manufacturing uncompetitive. Some factors are
- high cost of power, finance and freight
- inadequate infrastructure
- lack of supply chain
- high transaction cost
- inverted tariff structure
Features of Electronics policy:
- Policy Target: It target turnover of $400 billion (about ₹26 lakh crore) for the electronics system design and manufacturing (ESDM) sector by 2025. The turnover amount shall include targeted production of 1 billion mobile handsets by 2025 valued at $190 billion, including 600 million mobile handsets valued at $110 billion for export.
- End modified special incentive scheme (M-SIPS): The government will end modified special incentive scheme (M-SIPS) with schemes that it will find easier to implement such as interest subsidy and credit default guarantee
- Interest subvention scheme:It suggested that an interest subsidy of 4% will be provided on loans of upto Rs 1,000 crore on plant and machinery. In case of a larger loan, subsidy will be limited to Rs 1,000 crore.
- Credit Default guarantee fund:The government proposes to create a fund to provide default guarantee of up to 75% to banks for plant and machine loans of up to ₹100 crore to promote small and new investors. The scheme will be on the pattern of credit guarantee being provided by SIDBI for the SME sector.
- Special Package for mega projects: The policy calls for providing special package of incentives for mega projects which are “extremely high-tech” and entail huge investments, such as semiconductor facilities display fabrication, etc.
- Sovereign patent fund:It has proposed a sovereign patent fund to acquire intellectual property for chips and chip components. It formulates joint strategy and action plan along with Industry, Academia and R&D Organizations to identify core technologies and develop IPs and make them available to the Industry.
- Renewed Electronics Manufacturing Cluster Scheme: A renewed electronic manufacturing cluster scheme will provide infrastructure support for a group of industries that are part of the product supply chain rather than individual industries. Also, support for creating infrastructure and common facilities will be provided in collaboration with state governments.
- Exempt the import duty on capital equipment : It reduce capital expenditure for setting up/ expansion of existing units and address disabilities to a certain extent.
Q.4) Pulwama attacks has again showed that terrorism is a great challenge to our national security? Suggests some measures that need to be taken to tackle this menace.
- Addressing global terrorism through bilateral negotiations and multilateral institutions
- Curbs on terror finances
- Strengthening anti terror institutional, legal framework
- exchange of timely and actionable intelligence
- prevention of misuse of modern communication through collaboration with private sector
- building capacities for improved border controls
- designation of Counter-Terror focal points for establishing a possible global to fight global terror