Q.1) Electric vehicles could have a potential to pose positive impact on the economy as well as on environment. In this context discuss the need for introducing electric vehicles. What challenges India is facing in mainstreaming these vehicles?(GS-3)
Electric vehicles have the potential to disrupt the mobility ecosystem, and, if implemented well, could have a positive impact on the economy as well as the urban environment. India, however, needs a road map, with timelines, processes, well-researched impact studies, bold initiatives and robust investments in technological research to turn its EV dream into reality.
- All electric vehicle run on electricity only. An electric vehicle uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion.An electric vehicle may be powered through a collector system by electricity from off-vehicle sources, or may be self-contained with a battery, solar panels or an electric generator to convert fuel to electricity. EVs include road and rail vehicles, surface and underwater vessels, and electric spacecraft.
Why there is need for electric vehicles in India?
Push for electric mobility:
- NITI Aayog has estimated that the nation can save up to ₹4 lakh crore by rapidly adopting EVs.
- It will help in achieving India’s ambitious renewable energy plan.
- From 2030, India would completely shift to using electric vehicles (EVs).
- It will help in addressing vehicular pollution in India.
- It will help in curbing green houses. Hence will reduce global warming.
- It will promote clean and green energy. Hence environment friendly.
- It will help in achieving the target of “Paris climate agreements”.
- India’s whole Infrastructure is not capable to adopt Electric vehicles.
- Still many villagers night spent in Moon light & Kersoene lamp.
- Issue of Charging and storage current
- Our Motor Vehicle is not suitable for Electric vehicles.
- Extra Burden on State to implement Electric vehicles.
- Most of the electric vehicles especially car need to be recharge again.
- Electric cars is however silent and can lead to accidents in some cases.
- Limited seating capability.
- India does not produce lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries currently, and companies making battery packs are dependent almost exclusively on imports from China.
- This is a cost-saving strategy as setting up a cell manufacturing unit in India would be expensive.
Q.2)India is the largest democracy in the world still India has not been able to evolve a transparent political funding system. In this context discuss the relevance of electoral bonds. Why Electoral bonds are necessary?(GS-2)
An electoral bond is designed to be a bearer instrument like a Promissory Note — in effect, it will be similar to a bank note that is payable to the bearer on demand and free of interest. It can be purchased by any citizen of India or a body incorporated in India. The electoral bonds will not bear the name of the donor.
The bonds will be issued in multiples of ₹1,000, ₹10,000, ₹1 lakh, ₹10 lakh and ₹1 crore and will be available at specified branches of State Bank of India. They can be bought by the donor with a KYC-compliant account. Donors can donate the bonds to their party of choice which can then be cashed in via the party’s verified account within 15 days.
Every party that is registered under section 29A of the Representation of the Peoples Act, 1951 (43 of 1951) and has secured at least one percent of the votes polled in the most recent Lok Sabha or State election will be allotted a verified account by the Election Commission of India. Electoral bond transactions can be made only via this account.
Why Electoral Bonds are Necessary?
India is the largest democracy in the world. However, despite strengthening various institutions for the last seven decades, India has not been able to evolve a transparent political funding system. Elections and political parties are a fundamental feature of Parliamentary democracy.
Staff salaries, travelling expenses, establishment cost are regular expenditures of political parties. Besides expenditure of individual candidates, political parties have to spend money on election campaigns, publicity, tours, travels and election related establishments. These expenditures run into hundreds of crores. Yet there has not been a transparent funding mechanism of the political system.
Issues the with conventional system of political funding:
The conventional system of political funding is to rely on donations. These donations, big or small, come from a range of sources from political workers, sympathisers, small business people and even large industrialists. The conventional practice of funding the political system was to take donations in cash and undertake these expenditures in cash. The sources are anonymous or pseudonymous. The quantum of money was never disclosed. The present system ensures unclean money coming from unidentifiable sources. It is a wholly non-transparent system.
Q.3) Write a short note on any two of the following terms:
a) Khajuraho dance festival:(GS-1)
b) TAPI gas pipeline project and its benefits for India(GS-2)
c) Kaleswaram project(GS-3)
a) Khajuraho dance festival:
- During this festival, dance performances are held in an open-air auditorium, usually in front of the Chitragupta Temple dedicated to the Sun God and the Vishwanatha Temple dedicated to Lord Shiva.
- It represents classical dances, including Kathak, Odissi, Bharatnatyam, Kuchipudi, Kathakali and Mohiniattam .
- The 44th edition of Khajuraho dance festival has begun at the UNESCO world heritage site.
- The Dance Festival is being organised by the culture department of the Madhya Pradesh government.
b) TAPI gas pipeline project and its benefits for India:
The Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India Natural Gas Pipeline (TAPI) Project is a natural gas pipeline being developed by the Asian Development Bank. The TAPI pipeline will have a capacity to carry 90 million standard cubic metres a day (mscmd) gas for a 30-year period and be operational in 2018.
India and Pakistan would get 38 mscmd each, while 14 mscmd will be supplied to Afghanistan. From the Galkynysh field in Turkmensitan, the pipeline will run to Herat and Kandahar province of Afghanistan, before entering Pakistan. In Pakistan, it will reach Multan via Quetta before ending at Fazilka (Punjab) in India.
Benefits of this project for India:
- Energy is a growing need, and even if India is able to source energy from other countries like Iran and further afield, both the proximity and abundance of Turkmenistan’s reserves, that rank fourth in the world, will make it an attractive proposition.
- It will bring India much needed energy at competitive pricing, and could easily supply about 15% of India’s projected needs by the time it is completed in the 2020s.
- This project also gives India an opportunity to secure its interest in Central Asia. TAPI’s success will also ensure that India, Pakistan and Afghanistan find ways of cooperating on other issues as well.
c) Kaleswaram project
The Kaleshwaram project is an off-shoot of the original Pranahitha-Chevella Lift Irrigation Scheme taken up by the Congress government in 2007 when Andhra Pradesh was not divided.
The Kaleshwaram project has provision for the storage of about 148 tmc ft with plans of utilising 180 tmc ft by lifting at least 2 tmc ft water every day for 90 flood days. The project is designed to irrigate uplands in the erstwhile districts of Karimnagar, Nizamabad, Warangal, Medak, Nalgonda and Ranga Reddy.
In a major relief to the Telangana government, the Supreme Court recently has refused to intervene in an order granted by the Hyderabad High Court suspending the order of the National Green Tribunal at Delhi staying the construction of the Kaleswaram Lift Irrigation Project. The NGT bench at Chennai last year has directed the Telangana government to stay the construction of the project.