Answers: Mains Marathon – UPSC Mains Current Affairs Questions – March 20, 2019


Q.1) Examine the relevance of following in the context of the civil services

a) Probity

b) Honesty

c) Integrity



Probity is the highest form of honesty. It also requires putting in place mechanisms to reduce any chances of corruption. Civil servants are put in situations with huge amount of discretion. They handle large public sums for various development purposes. Also, civil servants are expected to act without any form of bias, nepotism in their duties. Probity ensures that these requirements are met.


Honesty is being truthful. Civil servants should be able to give honest and upright opinions to their political masters. They should declare any conflicts of interest before taking up a job. Their honesty is also needed to ensure justice in critical situations where they are witness.


Integrity of an individual is the strong moral principle that guides his actions, thought and words. A person with integrity does not fear others judgement in taking the action he believes in. Civil servants act in grey areas where the outcomes of actions cannot be predicted. Also they have to ensure that they put organisational values before any other personal interests. Integrity of a civil servant ensures these.


Q.2)What is contract farming? Critically examine the features of draft model contract farming act 2018?


Contract farming can be defined as agricultural production carried out according to an agreement between a buyer and farmers, which establishes conditions for the production and marketing of a farm product or products.

Draft Model Contract Farming Act, 2018:

The draft Model Act seeks to create a regulatory and policy framework for contract farming. Some important features of the draft legislation are:

  1. contract farming will be outside the ambit of the state APMCs
  2. establishing a state-level Contract Farming (Promotion and Facilitation) Authority to ensure implementation of the draft Model Act
  3. sale and purchase of contracted produce is out of the ambit of regulation of the respective state/UT Agricultural Marketing Act
  4. limits of stockholding of agricultural produce will not be applicable on produce purchased under contract farming


Q.3) What is hostile takeover? Give some example. Discuss its impact on business and shareholders?


A hostile takeover is the acquisition of one company by another that is accomplished by going directly to the company’s shareholders or by fighting to replace the management to get the acquisition approved.

Recent acquisition of MindTree shares by L&T is called hostile by the MindTree board.

Impact of hostile takeover:

  1. It reduces the role of stakeholders to mere witnesses and the shareholders may be forced to invest in some business they do not want to.
  2. The reputation of the company will be affected and thus reduce its market value.
  3. The buying company may not be interested in the ongoing business of the host and thus change the course of its business.


Q.4) Korean war propped up US-USSR rivalry and set up foundation for cold war. Discuss. Also explain how it influence the international relation and shape the modern world.


The Korean War was fought between South Korea and communist North Korea. It was the first major conflict of the Cold War as the Soviet Union supported North Korea and the United States supported South Korea.

Before World War II the Korean Peninsula had been a part of Japan. After the war it needed to be divided up. The Northern half went under the control of the Soviet Union and the Southern half under the control of the United States. The two sides were divided at the 38th parallel.

Eventually two separate states formed with North Korea forming a communist government with Kim Il-sung as leader and South Korea forming a capitalist government under the rule of Syngman Rhee.

The two sides did not get along and there were constant skirmishes and battles along the border at the 38th parallel. Attempts were being made to negotiate a unified country, but they were going nowhere.

North Korea invaded South Korea. The South Korean Army fled and forces from the United Nations came to help out. The United States provided the majority of the United Nations forces. Soon the South Korea government only occupied a small part of Korea on the southern tip.

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