Q.1) With respect to the tribal policy in India, what do you understand by the following?
a) Policy of Assimilation
b) Policy of Isolation
c) Policy of Integration
India’s tribal policy has been heavily influenced by Nehru’s views on tribal integration. What principles constituted Nehru’s “Tribal Panchsheel”?
Policy of assimilation of Tribals:
This describes the nature of assimilation of tribes in wider Hindu society. Tribes of India have slowly absorbed certain Hindu values and life style through contact with Hindus. Under Hindu influence tribes have given up liquor drinking, they received education and have changed their practices and habits and adopted Hinduism as their religion.
Policy of Isolation:
This idea advocates establishment of a sort of ‘National Park’ in a wild and largely inaccessible part of country under direct control of a tribal commissioner. Administration should allow tribesmen to live their live with utmost possible happiness and freedom. Wide power would be given to old tribal council and authority of village headman would be established. Non-tribal settlements in this area would be required to take out license. Tribal culture would not be destroyed and tribal freedom would be restored and maintained. Tribe’s contact with outsiders should be minimised.
Policy of Integration:
This theory is propounded by Jawaharlal Nehru. This involves integrating tribal people in Indian society and making them an integral part of Indian nation without hampering their distinct identity and culture.
Policy of integration consists of two types of measures for tribal development. These are Protective measures and Promotional measures.
- People should develop a long line of their own genius and nothing should be imposed on them. Rather we should try to encourage in every way their own traditional art and culture.
- Tribal rights in land and forests should be respected.
- We should try to train and build up a team of their own people to do work of administration and development. Some technical personnel from outside will be needed in beginning. But we should avoid introducing too many outsiders into tribal territory.
- We should not over-administer these areas or overwhelm them with a multiplicity of schemes. We should rather work through their own social and cultural institution.
- We should judge result, not by statistics of amount of money spent, but by quality of human character that is evolved.
Q.2) The recent Living Planet report of World Wildlife Fund for Nature (WWF) showed that India is among countries whose soil biodiversity faces the highest level of risk. State the reasons for the loss of soil biodiversity. Also state measures to minimise its impact.
Soil biodiversity encompasses the presence of microorganisms, micro-fauna (nematodes and tardigrades for example), and macro-fauna (ants, termites and earthworms).
Loss of soil biodiversity:
- Excessive use of pesticides and fertilisers.
- Loss of above-ground diversity
- Intensive agriculture
- Soil erosion
- Climate change
Measures to minimise impact:
- WWF suggests clearly specifying a goal for biodiversity recovery and developing a set of measurable and relevant indicators of progress and agreeing on a suite of actions that can collectively achieve the goal in the required time frame.
- Reducing usage of fertilisers and pesticides and opting for ZBNF or organic farming techniques. Using biofertilizers and pesticides.
- Promoting agri techniques like crop rotation, intercropping etc.,
- Reducing soil erosion through terrace farming, constructing bunds and other barriers on steep slopes.
- Addressing the issue of shifting cultivation in hilly areas through provision of better technologies.
- Arresting desertification by water harvesting, ground water recharge, afforestation and protecting surface water bodies.
- Mixed farming to enable incomes and also provide essential manure to crops.
Q.3) Why is there a lack of transparency and accountability about the financing and internal functioning of political parties in India? Why is it important to ensure transparency? Critically discuss.
Lack of transparency in political funding:
- The previous amendment that curtails cash donations up to Rs.2000 does not apply for anonymous donors.
- Electoral bond discouraged cash but increased anonymity.
- Political parties disagreed to comply with the CIC ruling on RTI applicability.
- Almost 75% of political funding is from anonymous donors.
Need for transparency:
- To provide level playing field which does not accrue any undue advantage to the party in power
- To curtail the power of money in politics
- Political parties are not transparent in auditing and sharing the audit details with election commission
- Approximately 75% of the fund collected by political parties is anonymous
- Anonymous funds Maybe from drugs and crimes
- Quid pro quo for the donations in crony capitalism
- It affects free and fair nature of the elections
- Now, even donations greater than 20,000 are not reported after the launch of electoral bonds
- State funding of political parties
- Creation of a national electoral fund
- RTI to political parties has to be implemented in spirit.
- All payments to parties should be mandatory made digital
- Making electoral bonds mechanism more transparent.
Q.4) what do you understand by the concept of “freedom of speech and expression”? why do the films in india stands on slightly different plane from other form of expression ? discuss
Freedom of Speech and Expression implies that every citizen has the right to express his views, opinions, belief and convictions freely by word of mouth, writing, printing, picturing or in any other manner.
The State can impose reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the freedom of speech and expression on the grounds of sovereignty and integrity of India; security of the state; friendly relations with foreign states; public order, decency or morality; contempt of court, defamation, and incitement to an offence.
The films in India stand on slightly different plane from other form of expression because of these reasons:
- As films reach out to a larger audience at once, they have the ability to disseminate wrong ideals or beliefs or attitudes about a group or an individual. Hence, regulating/certification is a necessary evil.
- Freedom of expression is subject to certain restrictions and films or any other medium which violates them is subject to restrictions.
- There is a large role of cinema in shaping attitudes related to unwanted elements such as excessive violence, objectification of women etc.
- Freedom is also about expanding the ability of people to freely express themselves and develop their potential.
- Films which portray the life of individuals have to be extra cautious about their right to privacy.
- In communally sensitive country like India, films must take care to not be excessively tilted against any community. Though they must have the freedom to criticise, it should avoid a personal agenda.
To balance these interests, certification committees are setup across the world with the participation of members from the government and experts from film industry.