Q.1) The food processing sector can play a critical role in helping farmers receive better prices than Minimum Support Prices. Comment.
The Food Processing Industry has emerged as one of the important segment in terms of its contribution to Indian economy, particularly to farm income.
Contribution to farmers’ income:
- It has a critical role in strengthening rural economy as it brings about synergy between the consumer, industry and agriculture.
- A well-developed food processing industry is expected to increase farm gate prices, reduce wastages, ensure value addition, promote crop diversification, generate employment opportunities as well as export earnings.
- This sector gives employment to a lot of women.
- This offers income opportunities to farmers in the dryland areas that traditionally grow only pulses and millets.
- Integration of developments in contemporary technologies such as electronics, material science, computer, biotechnology etc. helps in progress.
- Opening of global markets helps in exports both of traditional foods and processed foods, thus boosting farm incomes and employment opportunities.
- Proper value addition of agriculture produce could eventually lower the demand for a hike in minimum support price.
Q.2) Morley-Minto Reform plays a crucial role in establishing parliamentary democracy in India. Discuss
Features of 1909 Councils Act:
- Increased the size of legislative councils, both Central and provincial.
- Allowed the provincial legislative councils to have non-official majority.
- Enlarged the deliberative functions of the legislative councils at both the levels. Members were allowed to ask supplementary questions, move resolutions on the budget, and so on.
- Provided for the association of Indians with the executive Councils of the Viceroy and Governors.
- Introduced a system of communal representation for Muslims by accepting the concept of ‘separate electorate’.
Role in parliamentary democracy:
Parliamentary democracy is premised on the fact that highest vote winning party in the legislature forms the government. Thus the legislature and executive are intrinsically linked.
M M reforms allowed a non-official majority in the legislature. Also they allowed the participation of Indians in executive directly.
Though the Act appeared to be an attempt of associating the Indians with administration, it was practically a ploy to tighten the British grip on Indian soil by dividing the electorate on communal lines.
Q.3) What are the causes of internal migration in India. Also discuss the impact of migration on place of origin and place of destination.
Internal migration is the movement within national boundaries. It involves migration from rural areas to urban spaces in search of livelihood opportunities.
Causes of internal migration:
Internal migration can be driven by push and/or pull factors.
- Agrarian distress and natural calamities.
- Social stratification and victimhood.
- Conflict, drought, famine, or extreme religious activity.
- Better-paying jobs in urban areas.
- Better health and education facilities.
- Quality of life.
Impact of migration:
On place of origin:
- Migration of males has led to feminisation of agriculture in rural areas.
- Migrants also take their skills and knowledge back with them to the rural areas.
- Improved quality of living in rural areas due to remittances.
- The rising contribution of cities to India’s GDP would not be possible without migration and migrant workers.
- Pressure on the resources and governance in urban areas, poor quality of living in the slums.
- Often it leads to conflict because locals feel deprived of their jobs.
Q.4) What do you mean by social empowerment? Do you think social empowerment is more important than economic empowerment? Discuss with example.
It is the process of developing a sense of autonomy and self-confidence and changing discourses that exclude poor people and keep them in poverty.
Importance of social empowerment:
- Taking the example of empowerment of women, despite high economic empowerment, women continue to face social discrimination.
a) Many women even in powerful positions are facing problem of glass ceiling and sexual harassment. Recent instances of MeToo point to this problem.
b) Women working in other jobs face sexual harassment and discriminatory wages.
2. The other example is of SC, ST and minority communities.
a) Despite reservations that economically empowered the communities, they continue to face social discrimination.
b) Also, many socially discriminating practises continue to exist within the community despite their economic progress. Eg., Triple Talaq
Therefore, social empowerment is essential to complete economic empowerment of a community or an individual.