Answers: Mains Marathon – UPSC Mains Current Affairs Questions – September 1


1. Analyze the circumstances that led to the Tashkent agreement. Did it achieve its objectives?


  • Tashkent agreement brought an end to the armed conflict between India and Pakistan in 1965.Both the countries prime ministers signed the agreement to declare their firm resolve to restore normal and peaceful relations between their countries and to promote understanding and friendly relations between their peoples.

Objectives agreement are :-

  • Both sides will exert all efforts to create good neighbourly relations between India and Pakistan in accordance with the United Nations Charter.
  • All armed personnel of the two countries shall be withdrawn not later than 25 February, 1966 to the positions they held prior to 5 August, 1965.
  • Relations between India and Pakistan shall be based on the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of each other.
  • Encourage propaganda which promotes the development of friendly relations between the two countries.
  • Both Governments shall observe the Vienna Convention of 1961 on Diplomatic Intercourse
  • Consider measures towards the restoration of economic and trade relations, communications, as well as cultural exchanges between India and Pakistan
  • Both sides will create conditions which will prevent the exodus of people
  • Both sides have recognized the need to set up joint Indian-Pakistani bodies which will report to their Governments in order to decide what further steps should be taken.

Circumstances that led to signing of Tashkent agreement are:

  • Internal dynamics:
    • India was already suffering from the financial constraints after the 1962 war and the 1965 war enhanced it so India had to put an end to this.
    • India was suffering from drought and it was a period of food shortage.
    • Frequent violation of ceasefire was affecting both the countries
  • International dynamics:
    • Dynamics changed as Chinese gave support to Pakistan in 1965 to counter India
    • USA threatened India to suspend PL 480 food
    • Pakistan started the Operation Gibraltar and  Operation Grand Slam- to encourage/support sabotage/guerrilla operations in Kashmir to give an impression of armed rebellion and leading to separation of Kashmir from India.
    • Indian forces responded by launching operations against the Pak Army.
    • UN role:
      • It  made hectic efforts to bring an end to the conflict.
    • Other powers role :
      • They did not want this conflict to escalate and drag other countries too.
      • The Soviet Union had offered its good offices for a peaceful settlement between the two warring states.

Success of this agreement:.

  • Was hoped to be a framework for everlasting peace.
  • strategic aim of Pakistan, which was to weaken India in Kashmir had not succeeded.
  • No meddling in each other’s internal affairs.
  • Stopped a larger war involving other powers etc.
  • Captured lands and prisoners of war were given back.
  • Improved bilateral relations
  • Gradually led to the consensus to form SAARC
  • Connectivity between the two countries via road and rail improved
  • The Diplomatic Mission was also restored.


  • No war pact not there.
  • Did not lead to resolution of crisis as in 1971 another military conflict broke out
  • Infiltration from Pakistan is still going on.
  • Security situation complicated in Kashmir and Indo Pak border.
  • No renunciation of guerilla warfare in Kashmir.
  • Hatred propaganda against each other is growing with every new conflict.
  • Trade relation of both countries affected due to border tensions and terrorism
  • External interference in Kashmir issue which was not encouraged by the agreement is actively taken up by Pakistan.


  • Improvement in India Pakistan relations brings peace, sign of relief for huge population in both countries and also for the effective build up of organizations like SAARC. So there is a need for active discussion between both the countries to resolve border disputes and other issues as well

 2. Why is Emotional Intelligence (EI)  important at workplace? How is it different from Intelligence Quotient (IQ)? 


  • Emotional quotient (EQ) or emotional intelligence is the ability to identify, assess, and control the emotions of oneself, of others, and of groups.
  • Over the years the role of emotional intelligence is being increasingly recognized for good relationships and success both at personal and professional levels.

Why emotional intelligence is important at work place

  • According to study by World Economic Forum 90 % of high performers in the organizations have high emotional intelligence
  • Emotional intelligence at workis about how people and relationships function:
    • Relationships between colleagues, between directors and staff;
    • Relationships between the organisation and its customers, stakeholders, suppliers, competitors, networking contacts.
  • Private Organizations:
    • An emotionally intelligent organisation has motivated , satisfied, confident ,effective employees
    • Employees work actively torwards the organisations goals.
    • In Japan ,companies provide napping time to employees .this actually increases their efficiency even more.
    • Leadership success
      • better cooperation with employees ,solving conflicts amongst them etc.
      • Some of the technological leaders like Bill gates,Mark Zuckerberg promoted participatory leadership styles where employees also could put forward their ideas with the management.
    • Public sector:
      • Administration
        • Administrators with emotional intelligence will be socially responsible, impulse control, optimism, perform under stress, effectively resolve ethical dilemmas etc.
        • In Bihar,during the implementation of Mid day meal scheme an IAS officer showed EQ by eating the food made by a dalit widow which led to dissipation of protests based on caste perpective.

Differences between emotional intelligence and intelligence quotient

  • Origin:
    • In 1985, Wayne Payne’s doctoral thesis “A Study of Emotion: Developing Emotional Intelligence” Popular use came in Daniel Goleman’s book.
    • In 1883, English statistician Francis Galton’s paper “Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development” First application came in French psychologist Alfred Binet’s 1905 test
  • Definition:
    • An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a score derived from one of several standardized tests designed to assess intelligence.
  • Abilities:
    • EI is about assessing emotions and IQ is about assessing intelligence.
    • In the work place :
    • Teamwork, leadership, successful relations, service orientation, initiative, collaboration.
    • Success with challenging tasks, ability to analyze and connect the dots, research and development.
  • EQ is a better indicator of success in work place than IQ.

3. Compassion is not our choice, it’s a necessity for being a human. Do you agree?


  • Compassion literally means “to suffer together.”
  • Among emotion researchers, it is definedas the feeling that arises when you are confronted with another’s suffering and feel motivated to relieve that suffering.
  • Qualities of compassion are patience and wisdom; kindness and perseverance; warmth and resolve.
  • It is trying to understand another person’s perspective when they have hurt you.It is about focusing on others rather than yourself.

Humans need compassion because:

  • Personal:
    • Compassion from parents and teachers on children leads to the formation of personality which is beneficial to the society.
    • With compassion good relations can be maintained in the family as well.
  • Environment:
    • It is because of compassion environmental protection activities are taking place by countries and countries are working hard to achieve the sustainable development goals.
  • Scientific proof:
    • Studies have shown that being socially connected to others or being compassionate is vital for our well-being and has been found to increase our longevity, strengthen our immune system and recover from disease faster.
  • Professional level
    • It can lead to increased motivation to relieve the suffering of the others.
  • International level :-
    • There is rise in terrorist activities by ISIS,increasing turbulent relations among countries, cyber crime etc and compassion is especially compassion is especially in this scenario
    • Compassion can change the face of the situation by forgiveness and stop it from escalating into violence.
    • Compassion at the doorstep of problems for the person makes them believe in humanity irrespective of religion,caste,birth etc as is visible in the active support from various parts for the world for disasters in Nepal, Chennai floods etc.
  • At the same time it is a matter of choice when it comes to religions as Compassionis considered optional by many religious adherents.
    • As if compassion applies to whom we choose, not all of humankind.This angle can be emphasized too.
  • The world will be better place with less disease prevalence, no discrimination among people, inclusive society etc if value of compassion is nurtured in all. So being compassionate becomes a necessity to be truly human.

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