Answers: Mains Marathon – UPSC Mains Current Affairs Questions – September 29

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Q.1) State the advantages and disadvantages of using Coal bed methane as fuel in India? What is the present scenario of CBM resources in India? GS 3

Advantages of CBM as a fuel

  • CBM is an environmentally safe gas: Methane has been labelled as a Green House Gas (GHG) by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
  • Using CBM as a fuel will halt methane emission into environment and thus reducing emission of greenhouse gas from coal mining.
  • Extraction of CBM prior to coal mining activities makes mining activities safer by degassing the coal seams.
  • Extraction of CBM would help in increasing the domestic gas production. Currently, contribution of CBM to domestic natural gas production is 1.6%.

Disadvantages related to Coalbed Methane

  • Despite the huge reserves, a mismatch exists between estimated resources and gas in-place.
  • The following are some of the issues with respect to the simultaneous operations of Coal Bed Methane and coal mining by multiple owners:
  • There is a possibility of damage of gas wells resulting in explosive atmosphere in coal mines during simultaneous extraction of coal and CBM in the same vertical boundary by two different owners.
  • Multiple ownership for simultaneous exploitation may not be desirable for the life, health and safety of the workers employed in such mines.
  • Simultaneous operation over the same leasehold area requires the development of Safe Operating Procedures (SOP) for each operation based on assessments of risks

Present scenario of CBM resources in India

  • The government has identified 26,000 square km of area for CBM operation with total estimated CBM Resources of 2,600 billion cubic meters (91.8 TCF).
  • India has fourth largest proven coal reserves in the world.
  • It has significant prospects for exploiting CBM.
  • The Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas in consultation with Ministry of Coal has identified around 26,000 sq.km area for the operation of CBM.

Q.2) Is morality important to lead a happy life? Support your answer with examples. GS 4

Morality can be defined as principles concerning the distinction between right and wrong or good and bad behavior. In our day to day lives we often face situations where we have to choose between options and moral character of a person plays big part in it.

Morality is definitely a very important value to lead a happy life. A person with high integrity and moral character will choose the right and we know that the path of truth will lead to happiness in the long term even at the cost of short term sufferings.

In his childhood. Gandhi Ji once stole some money from his father’s pocket. He knew that his father would never come to know about it. However, showing high moral character, he confessed his mistake. The rest is history and we know Mohan Das became father of the nations.

There are numerous examples in our daily life where a moral life can lead to happiness. Some of them are explained below:

1. Corrupt vs. Honest Officers – Former CAG Mr. Vinod Rai unearthed big scams and was at the receiving end of the then government. However, now he is respected by all. At the same time, a dishonest officer can accumulate huge wealth but will always live in fear

2. Tax Evasion – People who pay taxes honestly are living happily without any fear versus tax evading people are always in fear of raid or penal action

3. Every day scenarios such as jumping red light, bribing traffic police, cheating in exams test out morality and people who are at the right side are always happy in the long term

There are many other ethical values in addition to morality such as honestly, integrity, truthfulness which are required to lead a happy and satisfying life. It is the responsibility of a society to teach them to our childrens so that overall we became a happy world.

Q3..How did the early peasant rebellions differ from the later peasant rebellions in India’s Struggle for freedom? Examine. (GS 1)

Early Peasant rebellions:

  • After 1857’s revolt, The British had crushed down native princes and zamindars. Hence farmers themselves became main force of agitations.
  • Target was sometimes government, sometimes moneylender, sometimes landlord/ zamindar
  • Territorial reach was limited and was not organized on mass-scale.
  • The localised nature of these revolts were seen in Moplah uprising was due to hike in revenue demands and reduction of field sizes
  • Often spontaneous with limited coordination
  • lacked continuity or long term struggle.
  • Never threatened British supremacy
  • Farmers didn’t mind paying rent, revenue, interest on debt but only agitated when they were raised to an abnormal level.
  • Lacked understanding of colonial economic system or divide and rule policy of the British. Farmers’ agitations were based within framework of old social order, hence often failed because government could woo a faction by granting them concession and hence movement would collapse.
  • Government issued a notification that the Indian farmers cannot be compelled to grow indigo and that it would ensure that all disputes were settled by legal means. By the end of 1860, Indigo planters should down their factories and cultivation of indigo was virtually wiped out from Bengal.
  • In the deccan riots Initially government resorted to use of police force and arrest. but later appointed a commission, passed Agriculturists Relief Act in 1879 and on the operation of Civil Procedure Code.Now the peasants could not be arrested and sent to jail if they failed to pay their debts

Later peasant rebellions:

  • Earlier kisan movements usually didn’t demand abolition of Zamindari. They merely wanted a fair system of land revenue and land tenancy. But these new movements strongly demanded for abolition of Zamindari.
  • Even when they were unsuccessful, they created a climate which necessitated the post-independence land reforms and abolition of Zamindari.
  • Earlier movements were by and large non-violent. But now they turned militant e.g. Telangana movement in Hyderabad state and the Tebhaga movement in Bengal. Similarly All India Kisan Sabha openly preached militancy, violence against Zamindars.
  • Peasant leaders anticipated freedom and new social order. Hence new movements started with renewed vigour especially after WWII.
  • The circumstances and the awareness of the nationalists and the people has led to the goals of peasant revolts being different in the 19th and the 20th century.
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