APPENDIX

APPENDIX [pdf]

1. Tiger Reserves

There are 50 Tiger Reserves in India which are governed by Project Tiger. National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) is the administering body.

Sl. NoTiger ReserveState
1DudhwaUttar Pradesh
2PilibhitUttar Pradesh
3RajajiUttarakhand
4CorbettUttarakhand
5ValmikiBihar
6SunderbansWest Bengal
7BuxaWest Bengal
8NamdaphaArunachal Pradesh
9Pakke/PakhuiArunachal Pradesh
10KamlangArunachal Pradesh
11OrangAssam
12ManasAssam
13NameriAssam
14KazirangaAssam
15DampaMizoram
16RanthamboreRajasthan
17SariskaRajasthan
18Mukandra HillsRajasthan
19KanhaMadhya Pradesh
20PenchMadhya Pradesh
21BandhavgarhMadhya Pradesh
22PannaMadhya Pradesh
23SatpuraMadhya Pradesh
24Sanjay-DubriMadhya Pradesh
25MelghatMaharashtra
26Tadoba-AndhariMaharashtra
27PenchMaharashtra
28SahyadriMaharashtra
29Nawegaon-NagziraMaharashtra
30BorMaharashtra
31Udanti-sitanadiChhattisgarh
32AchanakmarChhattisgarh
33IndravatiChhattisgarh
34PalamauJharkhand
35SimlipalOdisha
36SatkosiaOdisha
37BandipurKarnataka
38BhadraKarnataka
39Dandeli-AnshiKarnataka
40NagarholeKarnataka
41BiliRanganatha TempleKarnataka
42Nagarjunsagar Srisailam (part)Andhra Pradesh
43Nagarjunsagar Srisailam (part)Telangana
44KawalTelangana
45PeriyarKerala
46ParambikulamKerala
47Kalakad-MundanthuraiTamil Nadu
48MudumalaiTamil Nadu
49SathyamangalamTamil Nadu
50AnamalaiTamil Nadu
51Srivilliputhur MeghamalaiTamil Nadu
Pointers for prelims:

1.       Nagarjunasagar Srisailam is the largest tiger reserve.
2.       Bandipore was the first tiger reserve of India.
3.       India hosts around 70% of all the tigers in the world.
4.       States like Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and UTs like J&K and Ladakh have no tiger reserves.

4th All India Tiger Estimation 2018:

1.       Tiger population has grown from 1400 in 2014 to 2967 in 2018.
2.       Corbett Tiger Reserve has the highest number of tigers.
3.       State wise, Madhya Pradesh has the highest number of tigers followed by Karnataka.
4.       No tiger has been found in Buxa (West Bengal), Palamau (Jharkhand) and Dampa (Mizoram) reserves.

In addition to existing reserves, in-principle approval has been granted by NTCA for the creation of following new tiger reserves:

1.       Ratapani Tiger Reserve (Madhya Pradesh)
2.       Sunabeda Tiger reserve (Odisha)
3.       Guru Ghasidas (Chhattisgarh)
Final approval has been accorded to Kudremukh National Park to be declared as a tiger reserve.

Amrabad Tiger Reserve in Telangana has been in news for uranium exploration.

1.     It lies in the Nallamala hills
2.     In 2017, endangered species of mouse deer was reintroduced here.
3.     Chenchus tribe are present in the reserve.

 2. Elephant Reserves

Project Elephant was launched in 1992 with the objective of protecting elephants and their habitat.

Sl. NoElephant RangeLocationElephant Reserve
1East-Central landscape (South-West Bengal-Jharkhand-Orissa)

 

West Bengal

Jharkhand

Odisha

 

 

 

 

Chhattisgarh

Mayurjharna ER

Singhbhum ER

Mayurbhanj ER

Mahanadi ER

Sambalpur ER

Baitami ER

South Odisha ER

Lemru ER

Badalkhol-Tamorpingla ER

2Kameng-Sonitpur Landscape (Arunachal-Assam) TotalArunachal Pradesh

Assam

Kameng ER

Sonitpur ER

3Eastern-South Bank Landscape (Assam- Arunachal Pradesh)Assam

Arunachal Pradesh

Dihing-Patkai ER

South Arunachal ER

4Kaziranga-Karbi Anglong-Intanki Landscape (Assam- Nagaland)Assam

 

Nagaland

Kaziranga-Karbi Anglong ER

Dhansiri-Lungding ER

Intanki ER

Singphan ER

5North Bengal-Greater Manas Landscape  (Assam-West Bengal)Assam

West Bengal

Chirang-Ripu ER

Eastern Dooars ER

6Meghalaya LandscapeMeghalayaGaro Hills ER

Khasi Hills ER

7Brahmagiri-Nilgiri-Eastern Ghat Landscape (Karnataka- Kerala-Tamilnadu-Andhra)Karnataka

Kerala

 

Tamil Nadu

 

Andhra Pradesh

Mysore ER

Wayanad ER

Nilambur ER

Nilgiri ER

Coimbatore ER

Rayala ER

8Anamalai-Nellianpathy-High Range Landscape (Tamil Nadu-Kerala)Tamil Nadu

Kerala

Anamalai ER

Anamudi ER

9Periyar-Agasthymalai Landscape (Kerala-Tamilnadu)Kerala

Tamil Nadu

Periyar ER

Srivilliputhur ER

10North-Western Landscape (Uttarakhand-Uttar Pradesh)Uttar Pradesh

Uttarakhand

Uttar Pradesh ER

Shivalik ER

Pointers for prelims:

1.     The oldest female is the leader of an elephant group.

2.     A breeding pair remains together for around 3 weeks.

3.     Elephants have a life expectancy of around 70 years.

4.     As of 2017 Census, India is home to 27,312 elephants. It accounts for 55% of the total world elephant population.

a.     South India has the highest number of wild elephants- 14,612.

b.    Among the south Indian states, Karnataka leads the table followed by Kerala.

3. Biodiversity Heritage Sites in India

“Biodiversity Heritage Sites” (BHS) are well defined areas that are unique, ecologically fragile ecosystems – terrestrial, coastal, inland waters and marine, having rich biodiversity comprising of any one or more of the following components: richness of wild as well as domesticated species or intra-specific categories, high endemism, presence of rare and threatened species, keystone species, species of evolutionary significance, wild ancestors of domestic/ cultivated species or their varieties, past pre-eminence of biological components represented by fossil beds and having significant cultural, ethical or aesthetic values. They are important for the maintenance of cultural diversity, with or without a long history of human association with them.

Sl. NoName State
1Nallur Tamarind GroveKarnataka
2HogrekanKarnataka
3University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK Campus, BengaluruKarnataka
4AmbaragudaKarnataka
5Glory of AllapalliMaharashtra
6Tonglu BHS under the Darjeeling Forest DivisionWest Bengal
7Dhotrey BHS under the Darjeeling Forest DivisionWest Bengal
8Dialong VillageManipur
9Ameenpur LakeTelangana
10MajuliAssam
11Ghariyal Rehabilitation CentreUttar Pradesh
12Chilkigarh Kanak DurgaWest Bengal
13Khlaw Kur Syiem KmielngMeghalaya
14MandasaruOdisha
15Purvatali RaiGoa
16Naro HillsMadhya Pradesh
17PatalkotMadhya Pradesh
18AsramamKerala

4. Biosphere Reserves

UNESCO initiated the program of Biosphere Reserves in 1971 under its Man and Biosphere (MAB) Programme.

Sl. NoName Location (State)Key fauna
1Achnakamar-AmarkantakM.P. and Chhattisgarh (Maikal Hills)Sarus crane, white rumped vulture
2AgasthyamalaiNeyyar, Peppara and Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuaries in KeralaNilgiri tahr, Asian elephant
3Cold DesertPin Valley National Park, Chandratal and Sarchu & Kibber Wildlife Sanctuary in Himachal PradeshSnow Leopard
4Dehang-DibangArunachal PradeshMusk deer, mishmi takin
5Dibru-SaikhowaAssamWater buffalo, white-winged wood duck
6Great NicobarA&N IslandsSaltwater crocodile
7Gulf of MannarTamil NaduDugong
8KachchhGujaratIndian wild ass
9KhangchendzongaSikkimSnow leopard, red panda, Tibetan Wild Ass
10ManasAssamAsiatic elephant, tiger, Assam roofed turtle, hispid hare, golden langur, pygmy hog
11Nanda DeviUttarakhandSnow Leopard
12Nilgiri (India’s first Biosphere Reserve)Parts of Wayanad, Nagarhole, Bandipur and Madumalai, Nilambur, Silent Valley and Siruvani hills (Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Karnataka)Nilgiri tahr, tiger, lion tailed macaque
13NokrekGaro hills (Meghalaya)Red panda
14PachmarhiM.P.Giant squirrel, flying squirrel
15Seshachalam HillAndhra PradeshSlender loris
16SimlipalOdishaRoyal Bengal tiger, Asian elephant
17SunderbansWest BengalRoyal Bengal tiger
18PannaM.P.
Pointers for prelims:

.       Gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat is the largest Biosphere Reserve while Dibru-Saikhowa, Assam is the smallest.

2.       Rann of Kachchh:

a.     Tropic of Cancer passes through it.
b.    Luni river drains into it.
c.     Known for Banni Grasslands and Chari-Dhand Wetland Conservation Reserve.

3.       Nanda Devi peak is drained by Rishi Ganga.

4.       Dibru-Saikhowa:

a.     Drained by Brahmaputra river, Lohit river and Dibru river.

5.       Pachmarhi:

a.     Satpura National Park, Bori Sanctuary and Pachmarhi Sanctuary are present.

6.       Achanakamar-Amarkantak:

a.     Drained by Narmada, Johilla and Son river.
b.    Maikal ranges together with Vindhya and Satpura lies within the reserve.

7.       Simlipal:

a.     “Mugger Crocodile Management Programme” was started here.
b.    Famous for Gaurs and Chausingha.

8.       Great Nicobar:

a.     Cambell Bay National Park and Galathea National Park are present.

5. World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR)

12 out of 18 Biosphere Reserves are a part of World Network of Biosphere Reserves, based on UNESCO Man and Biosphere (MAB) Programme list.

Sl. NoName (Year)State
1Nilgiri (2000)Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka
2Gulf of Mannar (2001)Tamil Nadu
3Sunderbans (2001)West Bengal
4Nanda Devi (2004)Uttarakhand
5Nokrek ((2009)Meghalaya
6Pachmarhi (2009)Madhya Pradesh
7Similipal (2009)Odisha
8Achanakmar-Amarkantak (2012)Chhattisgarh
9Great Nicobar (2013)A&N Islands
10Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve (2016)Kerala and Tamil Nadu
11Khangchendzonga National Park (2018)Sikkim
12Panna (2020)M.P.
Khangchendzonga National Park

is one of the highest ecosystems in the world located at the trijunction of Sikkim, Nepal and Tibet.  It was inscribed as India’s first ‘ Mixed World Heritage Site

6. Sacred Groves

Sacred groves are patches of primeval forest that some rural communities protect as abodes of deities. Sacred Groves have been legally protected under ‘community reserves’ in the Wildlife (Protection) Amendment Act, 2002.

Sl. NoName State
1PavithravanaAndhra Pradesh
2Gumpa ForestsArunachal Pradesh
3Gamkhap, MauhakManipur
4Ki Law LyngdohMeghalaya
5Orans, JogmayaRajasthan
6DeoraiGoa
7SaranaJharkhand
8Devara KaduKarnataka
9Kavu, Sara KavuKerala
10Devrai, Devrahati, DevgudiMaharashtra
11Jahera, ThakurammaOdisha
12Kovil KaduPuducherry
13Swami shola, KoilkaduTamil Nadu
14Deo Bhumi, BugyalUttarakhand
15Garamthan, Harithan, Jahera, Sabitrithan, SantalburithanWest Bengal

Maharashtra accounts for the highest number of sacred groves followed by Karnataka.

7. Natural World Heritage Sites

They are listed by UNESCO for their cultural or physical significance.

Sl. NoName State
1Kaziranga national ParkAssam
2Manas Wildlife SanctuaryAssam
3Sunderbans National ParkWest Bengal
4Keoladeo Ghana National ParkRajasthan
5Nanda Devi National ParkUttarakhand
6Western ghatsMaharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala
7Great Himalayan National parkHimachal Pradesh
Kaziranga National Park is also recognized as an ‘Important Bird Area’ by Birdlife International.

8. Mangrove sites in India

Sl. NoName State
1SunderbansWest Bengal
2Bhitarkanika
Mahanadi
Subernarekha
Chilika
Odisha
3Coringa
East Godavari
Krishna
Andhra Pradesh
4Pichavaram
Pulicat
Tamil Nadu
5North Andamans
Nicobar
A&N Islands
6VembanadKerala
7KarwarKarnataka
8GoaGoa
9Ratnagiri
Vaitarna
Malvan
Maharashtra
10Gulf of Kutchh
Gulf of Khambat
Gujarat
Pointers for prelims:

1.       Godavari Mangroves at Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary (CWLS) are touted to be the second largest mangroves in India. The largest mangrove forest in the world is Sunderbans, West Bengal.

2.       The mangrove forests in Andhra Pradesh are located in the estuaries of Godavari and Krishna rivers.

3.       CWLS, located in Andhra Pradesh is home to several endangered species like fishing cat, flamingoes, pelicans, heron among others.

4.       Hope Island too comes under the purview of CWLS.

9. Marine National Park and Wildlife Sanctuaries

Sl. NoName State
1Gulf of Kutch Marine National ParkGujarat
2Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park (also known as Wandoor National Park)Andaman Islands
3Gahirmatha Wildlife SanctuaryOdisha
4Gulf of Mannar Marine National ParkTamil Nadu
5Malvan Marine Wildlife SanctuaryMaharashtra
Gahirmatha Marine Wildlife Sanctuary

is the biggest nesting ground for Olive Ridley Turtles in the world. Olive Ridley Turtles are the most abundant of all sea turtles found in the world. They are known for their unique mass nesting called arribada They are predominantly carnivorous in nature. IUCN has classified them as ‘Vulnerable’.

10. National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries in news

Sl. NoName State
1Hemis National ParkLadakh
2Keibul Lamjao National ParkManipur
3Namdapha National ParkArunachal Pradesh
4Neora Valley National ParkWest Bengal
5GumtiTripura
6Trishna Wildlife SanctuaryTripura
7Sukhna Wildlife SanctuaryChandigarh
8Dalma Wildlife SanctuaryJharkhand
9Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary

Mouling National Park

Arunachal Pradesh
10Kishtewar National ParkJammu and Kashmir
11Tipeshwar Wildlife Sanctuary

Painganga Wildlife Sanctuary

Maharashtra
12Desert National ParkRajasthan
13Nauradehi SanctuaryMadhya Pradesh
14Tally Valley Wildlife SanctuaryArunachal Pradesh
15Atapaka bird sanctuaryAndhra Pradesh
16Nalbana bird sanctuaryOdisha
17Singphan Wildlife sanctuary
Intanki National Park
Puliebadze Wildlife Sanctuary
Fakim Wildlife Sanctuary
Rangapahar Wildlife Sanctuary
Nagaland
18Valley of Flower National ParkTemperate Alpine Zone of Uttarakhand
19Kanhargaon SanctuaryMaharashtra
Pointers for prelims:

 1.       Namdapha National Park

a.        This region is famous for its Diterocarp forests.
b.       Its climate varies from tropical to subtropical, temperate and arctic.
c.        Hoolock Gibbons, only ape in India, is found here.
d.       This protected area is India’s only national park credited with providing a haven to all the three top types of cat- snow leopard, clouded leopard and Bengal tiger.

2.       Nauradehi Sanctuary is the potential site for Cheetah reintroduction.

a.        It spreads across two river basins: Ganges and Narmada

3.       Atapaka bird sanctuary in Kolleru is a breeding ground for pelicans and painted stork.

4.       Nalbana bird sanctuary is the core area of Chilka lake.

5.       Keibul Lamjao National Park

a.        Loktak Lake present in this park is known for ‘floating phumdis’.
b.       Sangai, an endemic and endangered subspecies of brow-antlered deer is found only in this park.

11. Ramsar sites

Ramsar Convention is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands.

Sl. NoName of SiteState
1Asan Conservation ReserveUttarakhand
2Asthamudi WetlandKerala
3Beas Conservation ReservePunjab
4Bhitarkanika MangrovesOrissa
5Bhoj WetlandsMadhya Pradesh
6Chandertal WetlandHimachal Pradesh
7Chilka LakeOrissa
8Deepor BeelAssam
9East Kolkata WetlandsWest Bengal
10Harike LakePunjab
11Hokera WetlandJammu and Kashmir
12Kabartal WetlandBihar
13Kanjli LakePunjab
14Keoladeo Ghana NPRajasthan
15Keshopur-Miani Community ReservePunjab
16Kolleru LakeAndhra Pradesh
17Loktak LakeManipur
18Lonar LakeMaharashtra
19Nalsarovar Bird SanctuaryGujarat
20Nandur MadhameshwarMaharashtra
21Nangal Wildlife SanctuaryPunjab
22Nawabganj Bird SanctuaryUttar Pradesh
23Parvati Agra Bird SanctuaryUttar Pradesh
24Point Calimere Wildlife and Bird SanctuaryTamil Nadu
25Pong Dam LakeHimachal Pradesh
26Renuka WetlandHimachal Pradesh
27Ropar LakePunjab
28Rudrasagar LakeTripura
29Saman Bird SanctuaryUttar Pradesh
30Samaspur Bird SanctuaryUttar Pradesh
31Sambhar LakeRajasthan
32Sandi Bird SanctuaryUttar Pradesh
33Sarsai Nawar JheelUttar Pradesh
34Sasthamkotta LakeKerala
35Sunderbans WetlandWest Bengal
36Surinsar-Mansar LakesJammu and Kashmir
37Sur SarovarUttar Pradesh
38Tso Kar Wetland ComplexLadakh
39Tsomoriri LakeJammu and Kashmir
40Upper Ganga River
(Brijghat to Narora Stretch)
Uttar Pradesh
41Vembanad Kol WetlandKerala
42Wular LakeJammu & Kashmir
Pointers for prelims:

1.       Kolleru Lake

a.     Freshwater Lake
b.    Located between Krishna and Godavari rivers.
c.     Supports Spot-billed Pelicans, Painted Storks as well as the critically endangered Spoon-billed Sandpiper.

2.       Wular Lake

a.     Largest freshwater lake in India.
b.    Situated on the Jhelum river.

3.       Tsomoriri

a.     Brackish lake.

4.       Pong Dam Lake

a.     It is a manmade wetland.

5.       Chilka Lake

a.     Mouth of Daya river.

6.       Ropar and Kanjli Wetland

a.     A manmade wetland

7.       Bhitarkanika Mangroves

a.     Known for salt-water crocodiles, olive ridley.
b.    Brahmani and Baitrani river delta.
c.     This is an important site of wildlife and biodiversity and a protected area.

8.       Bhoj Wetland

a.     Manmade reservoir
b.    Largest bird of India, Sarus Crane is found here.

9.       Keoladeo Ghana National Park

a.     Also known as Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary.
b.    Home of rare Siberian Cranes.

10.    Lonar Lake:

a.     It is situated in Deccan Plateau’s volcanic basalt rock and was created by the impact of a meteor 35,000 to 50,000 years ago.
b.    The lake is a part of Lonar Wildlife Sanctuary which falls under the unified control of Melghat Tiger Reserve.
c.     It is a notified National Geo-heritage Monument.
d.    The water in the lake is highly saline, containing special micro-organisms like anaerobes, cyanobacteria and phytoplankton.

11.    Sur Sarovar Lake:

a.     It is also known as Keetham Lake.
b.    The lake is situated alongside river Yamuna in Agra, Uttar Pradesh.
c.     It has a Beer Rescuing Centre for rescued dancing beers.

Pulicat lake is not a Ramsar site. But it is an important lake near Chennai. Flamingo festival is a major attraction here.

12. Reports and indices

Sl. NoReport Publisher
1Emissions Gap Report, Our Planet, Tunza, Atlas of Our Changing Environment, Global Environment Outlook, Adaptation Gap ReportUNEP
2Greenhouse Gas BulletinWMO
3Climate Change Performance IndexGermanwatch, New Climate Institute and Climate Action Network
4Global Climate Risk IndexGermanwatch
5Living Planet ReportWWF
6Hindu Kush Himalayan Assessment ReportInternational Centre for Integrated Mountain Development
7State Energy Efficiency Preparedness IndexAlliance for Energy Efficient Economy (AEEE) along with Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE)
8Comprehensive Environmental Pollution Index (CEPI)CPCB
9EnviStats ReportMinistry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI)
UNEP (United Nations Environment Program) is the leading environmental authority that sets the global environmental agenda. It is headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya and depends on voluntary contributions for 95% of its funding.

Awards by UNEP for environmental work include:

1.       SEED Awards

2.       Champions of the Earth Award

3.       Sasakawa Prize

UNEP has also launched initiatives like:

1.       Faith for Earth Initiative to strategically engage with faith-based organizations and partner with them to collectively achieve SDGs.

2.       UNEP Finance Initiative (UNEP FI) to develop global partnership between UNEP and the financial sector.

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