List of Contents
- 1. Tiger Reserves
- 2. Elephant Reserves
- 3. Biodiversity Heritage Sites in India
- 4. Biosphere Reserves
- 5. World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR)
- 6. Sacred Groves
- 7. Natural World Heritage Sites
- 8. Mangrove sites in India
- 9. Marine National Park and Wildlife Sanctuaries
- 10. National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries in news
- 11. Ramsar sites
- 12. Reports and indices
1. Tiger Reserves
There are 50 Tiger Reserves in India which are governed by Project Tiger. National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) is the administering body.
|Sl. No||Tiger Reserve||State|
|42||Nagarjunsagar Srisailam (part)||Andhra Pradesh|
|43||Nagarjunsagar Srisailam (part)||Telangana|
|51||Srivilliputhur Meghamalai||Tamil Nadu|
|Pointers for prelims:|
1. Nagarjunasagar Srisailam is the largest tiger reserve.
|4th All India Tiger Estimation 2018:|
1. Tiger population has grown from 1400 in 2014 to 2967 in 2018.
|In addition to existing reserves, in-principle approval has been granted by NTCA for the creation of following new tiger reserves:|
1. Ratapani Tiger Reserve (Madhya Pradesh)
|Amrabad Tiger Reserve in Telangana has been in news for uranium exploration.|
1. It lies in the Nallamala hills
2. Elephant Reserves
Project Elephant was launched in 1992 with the objective of protecting elephants and their habitat.
|Sl. No||Elephant Range||Location||Elephant Reserve|
|1||East-Central landscape (South-West Bengal-Jharkhand-Orissa)|
South Odisha ER
|2||Kameng-Sonitpur Landscape (Arunachal-Assam) Total||Arunachal Pradesh|
|3||Eastern-South Bank Landscape (Assam- Arunachal Pradesh)||Assam|
South Arunachal ER
|4||Kaziranga-Karbi Anglong-Intanki Landscape (Assam- Nagaland)||Assam|
|Kaziranga-Karbi Anglong ER|
|5||North Bengal-Greater Manas Landscape (Assam-West Bengal)||Assam|
Eastern Dooars ER
|6||Meghalaya Landscape||Meghalaya||Garo Hills ER|
Khasi Hills ER
|7||Brahmagiri-Nilgiri-Eastern Ghat Landscape (Karnataka- Kerala-Tamilnadu-Andhra)||Karnataka|
|8||Anamalai-Nellianpathy-High Range Landscape (Tamil Nadu-Kerala)||Tamil Nadu|
|9||Periyar-Agasthymalai Landscape (Kerala-Tamilnadu)||Kerala|
|10||North-Western Landscape (Uttarakhand-Uttar Pradesh)||Uttar Pradesh|
|Uttar Pradesh ER|
|Pointers for prelims:|
1. The oldest female is the leader of an elephant group.
2. A breeding pair remains together for around 3 weeks.
3. Elephants have a life expectancy of around 70 years.
4. As of 2017 Census, India is home to 27,312 elephants. It accounts for 55% of the total world elephant population.
a. South India has the highest number of wild elephants- 14,612.
b. Among the south Indian states, Karnataka leads the table followed by Kerala.
3. Biodiversity Heritage Sites in India
“Biodiversity Heritage Sites” (BHS) are well defined areas that are unique, ecologically fragile ecosystems – terrestrial, coastal, inland waters and marine, having rich biodiversity comprising of any one or more of the following components: richness of wild as well as domesticated species or intra-specific categories, high endemism, presence of rare and threatened species, keystone species, species of evolutionary significance, wild ancestors of domestic/ cultivated species or their varieties, past pre-eminence of biological components represented by fossil beds and having significant cultural, ethical or aesthetic values. They are important for the maintenance of cultural diversity, with or without a long history of human association with them.
|1||Nallur Tamarind Grove||Karnataka|
|3||University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK Campus, Bengaluru||Karnataka|
|5||Glory of Allapalli||Maharashtra|
|6||Tonglu BHS under the Darjeeling Forest Division||West Bengal|
|7||Dhotrey BHS under the Darjeeling Forest Division||West Bengal|
|11||Ghariyal Rehabilitation Centre||Uttar Pradesh|
|12||Chilkigarh Kanak Durga||West Bengal|
|13||Khlaw Kur Syiem Kmielng||Meghalaya|
|16||Naro Hills||Madhya Pradesh|
4. Biosphere Reserves
UNESCO initiated the program of Biosphere Reserves in 1971 under its Man and Biosphere (MAB) Programme.
|Sl. No||Name||Location (State)||Key fauna|
|1||Achnakamar-Amarkantak||M.P. and Chhattisgarh (Maikal Hills)||Sarus crane, white rumped vulture|
|2||Agasthyamalai||Neyyar, Peppara and Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuaries in Kerala||Nilgiri tahr, Asian elephant|
|3||Cold Desert||Pin Valley National Park, Chandratal and Sarchu & Kibber Wildlife Sanctuary in Himachal Pradesh||Snow Leopard|
|4||Dehang-Dibang||Arunachal Pradesh||Musk deer, mishmi takin|
|5||Dibru-Saikhowa||Assam||Water buffalo, white-winged wood duck|
|6||Great Nicobar||A&N Islands||Saltwater crocodile|
|7||Gulf of Mannar||Tamil Nadu||Dugong|
|8||Kachchh||Gujarat||Indian wild ass|
|9||Khangchendzonga||Sikkim||Snow leopard, red panda, Tibetan Wild Ass|
|10||Manas||Assam||Asiatic elephant, tiger, Assam roofed turtle, hispid hare, golden langur, pygmy hog|
|11||Nanda Devi||Uttarakhand||Snow Leopard|
|12||Nilgiri (India’s first Biosphere Reserve)||Parts of Wayanad, Nagarhole, Bandipur and Madumalai, Nilambur, Silent Valley and Siruvani hills (Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Karnataka)||Nilgiri tahr, tiger, lion tailed macaque|
|13||Nokrek||Garo hills (Meghalaya)||Red panda|
|14||Pachmarhi||M.P.||Giant squirrel, flying squirrel|
|15||Seshachalam Hill||Andhra Pradesh||Slender loris|
|16||Simlipal||Odisha||Royal Bengal tiger, Asian elephant|
|17||Sunderbans||West Bengal||Royal Bengal tiger|
|Pointers for prelims:|
. Gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat is the largest Biosphere Reserve while Dibru-Saikhowa, Assam is the smallest.
2. Rann of Kachchh:
a. Tropic of Cancer passes through it.
3. Nanda Devi peak is drained by Rishi Ganga.
a. Drained by Brahmaputra river, Lohit river and Dibru river.
a. Satpura National Park, Bori Sanctuary and Pachmarhi Sanctuary are present.
a. Drained by Narmada, Johilla and Son river.
a. “Mugger Crocodile Management Programme” was started here.
8. Great Nicobar:
a. Cambell Bay National Park and Galathea National Park are present.
5. World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR)
12 out of 18 Biosphere Reserves are a part of World Network of Biosphere Reserves, based on UNESCO Man and Biosphere (MAB) Programme list.
|Sl. No||Name (Year)||State|
|1||Nilgiri (2000)||Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka|
|2||Gulf of Mannar (2001)||Tamil Nadu|
|3||Sunderbans (2001)||West Bengal|
|4||Nanda Devi (2004)||Uttarakhand|
|6||Pachmarhi (2009)||Madhya Pradesh|
|9||Great Nicobar (2013)||A&N Islands|
|10||Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve (2016)||Kerala and Tamil Nadu|
|11||Khangchendzonga National Park (2018)||Sikkim|
is one of the highest ecosystems in the world located at the trijunction of Sikkim, Nepal and Tibet. It was inscribed as India’s first ‘ Mixed World Heritage Site
6. Sacred Groves
Sacred groves are patches of primeval forest that some rural communities protect as abodes of deities. Sacred Groves have been legally protected under ‘community reserves’ in the Wildlife (Protection) Amendment Act, 2002.
|2||Gumpa Forests||Arunachal Pradesh|
|4||Ki Law Lyngdoh||Meghalaya|
|9||Kavu, Sara Kavu||Kerala|
|10||Devrai, Devrahati, Devgudi||Maharashtra|
|13||Swami shola, Koilkadu||Tamil Nadu|
|14||Deo Bhumi, Bugyal||Uttarakhand|
|15||Garamthan, Harithan, Jahera, Sabitrithan, Santalburithan||West Bengal|
Maharashtra accounts for the highest number of sacred groves followed by Karnataka.
7. Natural World Heritage Sites
They are listed by UNESCO for their cultural or physical significance.
|1||Kaziranga national Park||Assam|
|2||Manas Wildlife Sanctuary||Assam|
|3||Sunderbans National Park||West Bengal|
|4||Keoladeo Ghana National Park||Rajasthan|
|5||Nanda Devi National Park||Uttarakhand|
|6||Western ghats||Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala|
|7||Great Himalayan National park||Himachal Pradesh|
8. Mangrove sites in India
|10||Gulf of Kutchh|
Gulf of Khambat
|Pointers for prelims:|
1. Godavari Mangroves at Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary (CWLS) are touted to be the second largest mangroves in India. The largest mangrove forest in the world is Sunderbans, West Bengal.
2. The mangrove forests in Andhra Pradesh are located in the estuaries of Godavari and Krishna rivers.
3. CWLS, located in Andhra Pradesh is home to several endangered species like fishing cat, flamingoes, pelicans, heron among others.
4. Hope Island too comes under the purview of CWLS.
9. Marine National Park and Wildlife Sanctuaries
|1||Gulf of Kutch Marine National Park||Gujarat|
|2||Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park (also known as Wandoor National Park)||Andaman Islands|
|3||Gahirmatha Wildlife Sanctuary||Odisha|
|4||Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park||Tamil Nadu|
|5||Malvan Marine Wildlife Sanctuary||Maharashtra|
is the biggest nesting ground for Olive Ridley Turtles in the world. Olive Ridley Turtles are the most abundant of all sea turtles found in the world. They are known for their unique mass nesting called arribada They are predominantly carnivorous in nature. IUCN has classified them as ‘Vulnerable’.
10. National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries in news
|1||Hemis National Park||Ladakh|
|2||Keibul Lamjao National Park||Manipur|
|3||Namdapha National Park||Arunachal Pradesh|
|4||Neora Valley National Park||West Bengal|
|6||Trishna Wildlife Sanctuary||Tripura|
|7||Sukhna Wildlife Sanctuary||Chandigarh|
|8||Dalma Wildlife Sanctuary||Jharkhand|
|9||Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary|
Mouling National Park
|10||Kishtewar National Park||Jammu and Kashmir|
|11||Tipeshwar Wildlife Sanctuary|
Painganga Wildlife Sanctuary
|12||Desert National Park||Rajasthan|
|13||Nauradehi Sanctuary||Madhya Pradesh|
|14||Tally Valley Wildlife Sanctuary||Arunachal Pradesh|
|15||Atapaka bird sanctuary||Andhra Pradesh|
|16||Nalbana bird sanctuary||Odisha|
|17||Singphan Wildlife sanctuary|
Intanki National Park
Puliebadze Wildlife Sanctuary
Fakim Wildlife Sanctuary
Rangapahar Wildlife Sanctuary
|18||Valley of Flower National Park||Temperate Alpine Zone of Uttarakhand|
|Pointers for prelims:|
1. Namdapha National Park
a. This region is famous for its Diterocarp forests.
2. Nauradehi Sanctuary is the potential site for Cheetah reintroduction.
a. It spreads across two river basins: Ganges and Narmada
3. Atapaka bird sanctuary in Kolleru is a breeding ground for pelicans and painted stork.
4. Nalbana bird sanctuary is the core area of Chilka lake.
5. Keibul Lamjao National Park
a. Loktak Lake present in this park is known for ‘floating phumdis’.
11. Ramsar sites
Ramsar Convention is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands.
|Sl. No||Name of Site||State|
|1||Asan Conservation Reserve||Uttarakhand|
|3||Beas Conservation Reserve||Punjab|
|5||Bhoj Wetlands||Madhya Pradesh|
|6||Chandertal Wetland||Himachal Pradesh|
|9||East Kolkata Wetlands||West Bengal|
|11||Hokera Wetland||Jammu and Kashmir|
|14||Keoladeo Ghana NP||Rajasthan|
|15||Keshopur-Miani Community Reserve||Punjab|
|16||Kolleru Lake||Andhra Pradesh|
|19||Nalsarovar Bird Sanctuary||Gujarat|
|21||Nangal Wildlife Sanctuary||Punjab|
|22||Nawabganj Bird Sanctuary||Uttar Pradesh|
|23||Parvati Agra Bird Sanctuary||Uttar Pradesh|
|24||Point Calimere Wildlife and Bird Sanctuary||Tamil Nadu|
|25||Pong Dam Lake||Himachal Pradesh|
|26||Renuka Wetland||Himachal Pradesh|
|29||Saman Bird Sanctuary||Uttar Pradesh|
|30||Samaspur Bird Sanctuary||Uttar Pradesh|
|32||Sandi Bird Sanctuary||Uttar Pradesh|
|33||Sarsai Nawar Jheel||Uttar Pradesh|
|35||Sunderbans Wetland||West Bengal|
|36||Surinsar-Mansar Lakes||Jammu and Kashmir|
|37||Sur Sarovar||Uttar Pradesh|
|38||Tso Kar Wetland Complex||Ladakh|
|39||Tsomoriri Lake||Jammu and Kashmir|
|40||Upper Ganga River|
(Brijghat to Narora Stretch)
|41||Vembanad Kol Wetland||Kerala|
|42||Wular Lake||Jammu & Kashmir|
|Pointers for prelims:|
1. Kolleru Lake
a. Freshwater Lake
2. Wular Lake
a. Largest freshwater lake in India.
a. Brackish lake.
4. Pong Dam Lake
a. It is a manmade wetland.
5. Chilka Lake
a. Mouth of Daya river.
6. Ropar and Kanjli Wetland
a. A manmade wetland
7. Bhitarkanika Mangroves
a. Known for salt-water crocodiles, olive ridley.
8. Bhoj Wetland
a. Manmade reservoir
9. Keoladeo Ghana National Park
a. Also known as Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary.
10. Lonar Lake:
a. It is situated in Deccan Plateau’s volcanic basalt rock and was created by the impact of a meteor 35,000 to 50,000 years ago.
11. Sur Sarovar Lake:
a. It is also known as Keetham Lake.
12. Reports and indices
|1||Emissions Gap Report, Our Planet, Tunza, Atlas of Our Changing Environment, Global Environment Outlook, Adaptation Gap Report||UNEP|
|2||Greenhouse Gas Bulletin||WMO|
|3||Climate Change Performance Index||Germanwatch, New Climate Institute and Climate Action Network|
|4||Global Climate Risk Index||Germanwatch|
|5||Living Planet Report||WWF|
|6||Hindu Kush Himalayan Assessment Report||International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development|
|7||State Energy Efficiency Preparedness Index||Alliance for Energy Efficient Economy (AEEE) along with Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE)|
|8||Comprehensive Environmental Pollution Index (CEPI)||CPCB|
|9||EnviStats Report||Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI)|
|UNEP (United Nations Environment Program) is the leading environmental authority that sets the global environmental agenda. It is headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya and depends on voluntary contributions for 95% of its funding.|
Awards by UNEP for environmental work include:
1. SEED Awards
2. Champions of the Earth Award
3. Sasakawa Prize
UNEP has also launched initiatives like:
1. Faith for Earth Initiative to strategically engage with faith-based organizations and partner with them to collectively achieve SDGs.
2. UNEP Finance Initiative (UNEP FI) to develop global partnership between UNEP and the financial sector.