- Public servants could be arrested only with the written permission of their appointing authority, while for private employees, Senior Superintendent of Police concerned should allow it.
- A preliminary inquiry should be conducted before the FIR was registered to check if the case fell within the ambit of the Act, and whether it was frivolous or motivated, the court ruled.
- Set aside SC order that an FIR should be lodged only after a preliminary inquiry is conducted by a gazetted officer. It will insert section 18A that states that preliminary enquiry is not needed for FIR and immediate arrest of a person.
- Say that no approval of a senior official would be needed for arrests
- Say that no provision of section 438 of criminal procedure court would be applicable. Section 438 of CrPC states that only after preliminary enquiries find sufficient ground for lodging of an FIR, this would be done. This was made applicable after SC judgement. Govt wants it to revert back.
- To protect people against arbitrary arrests under the Act.
- There were “instances of abuse” of the Act by “vested interests” for political or personal reasons.
- One could not be arrested without following established procedure, and doing so would violate right of life and liberty.
- Alleged potential of misuse would not deserve to be considered as a valid, justifiable or permissible ground for reading down stringent provisions of the PoA (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989.
- There were 47,338 cases of crime against members of the SC/ST in 2016. In the face of growing atrocities against SCs/STs, aggrieved persons may now think twice before registering a complaint, as the process is backed by checks which prevent the automatic arrest of an accused.
- The changes focus on protecting the liberty of the accused and can dilute the rights of the complainant.
- While the SC/ST (Prevention of Atrocities) Act provided a legal cover to numerous"atrocities" that SCs and STs suffer, in reality, its implementation on the ground remained weak.
- Frequencies : One fundamental difference is 5G’s use of unique radio frequencies to achieve what 4G networks cannot. The radio spectrum is broken up into bands, each with unique features as you move up into higher frequencies. 4G networks use frequencies below 6 GHz, but 5G will likely use extremely high frequencies in the 30 GHz to 300 GHz range.
- Wavelength: 5G also uses shorter wavelengths, which means that antennas can be much smaller than existing antennas while still providing precise directional control. Since one base station can utilize even more directional antennas, it means that 5G will support over 1,000 more devices per meter than what’s supported by 4G.
- 5G networks will more easily understand the type of data being requested, and will be able to switch into a lower power mode when not in use or when supplying low rates to specific devices, but then switch to a higher powered mode for things like HD video streaming.
|Speed||100mbps to 1gbps speed||Speeds of up to 100 gigabits per second. It is almost 1,000 times faster than 4G|
|technology||Unified IP and seamless combination of LAN/ WAN||4G + WWWW|
|SErvice||Dynamic information access, variable devices. mainly used for voice, multimedia and internet over IP based traffic.||Dynamic information access, variable devices with all capabilities|
- In the age of Internet of Things (IoT) where a world in which not just people but all things are connected, 5G is the technological answer. It makes possible billions of new connections, and making those connections secure and instantaneous.
- The 5G Global Value Chain, including network operators, core technology and component suppliers, device OEMs, infrastructure providers, and content and application developers, is expected to grow output to $3.5 trillion in 2035
- It offers network operators the potential to offer new services to new categories of users.
- Because of the misuse of the hormone in the dairy industry. Because oxytocin stimulates lactation in cattle, dairy farmers inject the drug indiscriminately to increase milk production. This has spawned several unlicensed facilities that manufacture the drug for veterinary use.
- Oxytocin leads to infertility in dairy animals.
- It has also been linked to mastitis, a painful inflammation of the udder. Milk consumers worry about exposure to it through dairy products
- There are also concerns that oxytocin can enter the food chain through milk that can be harmful for human consumption, though it was not established.
- The drug is a synthetic version of a human hormone. It is a lifesaver for women. Doctors use it to induce labour in pregnant women and to stem postpartum bleeding. WHO recommends it as the drug of choice in postpartum haemorrhage. 45,000 of Indian women die due to causes related to childbirth each year.
- There are a few alternatives to oxytocin like misoprostol, but these are even more difficult to get.
- It would weaken one of the progressive features of the RTE Act, which is to guarantee the continued presence of the child in school during the formative learning phase.
- It will allow State Boards to declare a student failed and detain her on the basis of an examination, although Section 30(1) of the RTE Act holds out the assurance that no child shall be required to face any Board examination till completion of elementary education.
- The concerns on learning outcomes produced by India’s schooling system are determined not only by a student’s effort but also by the number and quality of teachers, processes for continuous assessment and engagement of parents and the community in encouraging excellence.
- In 2016 NITI Aayog found that bringing back detention in elementary schooling would increase the dropout rate, impacting the poor and Dalits the most as they depended on government institutions.
- When parents are unable to ensure regular attendance of children due to social circumstances, detaining them for non-performance may not act as an incentive to attend school regularly.