Q.1) When a state takes measures to ensure security, it simultaneously restricts liberty of people. Analyse in the context of recent measures taken by government to intercept, monitor, and decrypt online communications and data. Answer: As per the recent order, the 10 agencies have been authorised “for the purpose of interception, monitoring and decryption of any information generated, transmitted, received or stored in any computer resource under Section 69 of the IT Act, 2000. The powers to monitor data, under the IT (Procedure and Safeguards for Interception, Monitoring and Decryption of Information) Rules 2009, will be approved by Union home secretary for the central government and the chief secretary for the state government. Problems with state surveillance:
- It may compromise the fundamental rights granted to citizens, for free speech etc.,
- It will also compromise the right to privacy which is now considered a fundamental right, after the Puttaswamy judgement.
- It may lead to profiling of individuals and thus harassment of targeted groups.
- It doubts all citizens to be culprits, against the maxim of innocent till proven guilty.
- People may get caught for violating laws that they even did not know existed, as per state’s discretion.
- It could make the lower judiciary more professional by improving the quality of judges in lower courts.
- The quality of adjudication and the dispensation of justice would transform across the judiciary.
- It will attract competent law students to judiciary.
- Only the judges of proven competence will preside over the benches.
- This will minimise the struggle between judiciary and executive over judicial appointments.
- Economic Survey says that Crony socialism to stigmatised capitalism hindered growth and investments.
a) Failure to disinvest in loss making PSUs.
b) Still FDI is considered a negative point and is vociferously debated.
c) The aggressive investigations by 4Cs hindered discretion in decision making and led to policy paralysis.
- Failure to increase investments in health and education.
- Poor growth of exports over the years.
- Lack of policy strength as displayed by China in making the foreign companies adjust to local rules.
- Also, as Economic Survey points out, India’s cleavaged democracy forced it to fulfil demands of subsidies and reservations before taking off economically. This posed a burden on its growth.
- Increased power of military technology and Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) have led to the realisation that actual confrontation between major powers to be avoided
- Allowing women numerically allows much greater no of armed soldiers on the field.
- Women are already present on the battlefield as doctors are nurses.
- Many nations such as the UK are opening their doors to women.
- In Indian history also numerous examples of women soldiers and officers exists. Rani of Jhansi Brigade of Indian National Army (INA) was formed on 9 Sep 1943 in Singapore under Capt Lakshmi Swaminathan Sehgal who was a doctor by profession.