- Middle East – This decision will aggravate tensions between Saudi, Israel and Iran. Thus finding solutions to ongoing crisis like Yemen, Iraq may remain a problem.
- OPEC – Increase the division within OPEC due to conflicting agendas and strain in economies of countries like Venezuela, Mexico as seen recently.
- Crude oil – global crude oil prices are likely to rise due to fall in production. Though this may temporarily benefit countries like Saudi, oil importers will suffer.
- China – US – rift between these two will further widen as it is likely that China will not follow the sanctions. Russia also may join China.
- Economic impact – rise in oil prices will hurt India as Iran is the 3rd largest oil exporter to India. Also Indian rupee is likely to weaken wrt dollar. There will also be huge fiscal impact due to possible cut in excise duties.
- Iran – Iran extended facility to trade in rupees to India. The history of ties between the two nations where India tended close to Iran in the past sanctions regime brought China closer to Iran. Any withdrawal from India’s commitment may strain the relations further.
- China - China’s influence is already increasing in the region due to OBOR. India’s slowdown in relations with Iran may increase China’s influence over Iran. India thus risks losing access to Afghanistan and Central Asia.
- South Asia – Recent announcements shows going closeness between Iran, Pakistan. Also, China and Russia, Pakistan ties are strengthening against India’s close ties with USA. Thus, any actions by India that tends towards USA may strengthen the alliances of its opponents in the region.
- US – India: India risks losing hugely if it goes against USA’s stand as it has even set deadlines to follow sanctions for partners alike.
- cost of fuel –fuelwood which is mostly locally available is thus preferred
- attitudes –most households continue to use the traditional energy sources despite availability of LPG connections.
- access –cleaner fuels like PNG and LPG are very rarely available for access in rural areas.
- role of gender- in many households, women do not have the power to make decisions on the fuel choices.
- subsidy regime - consumption-based subsidies need to be replaced with a functional subsidy that is provided on the basis of household income levels and local variables. Instead of subsidising LPG which boosts up the import bill further, government can encourage local fuels.
- infrastructure – at the local levels for promoting recycling of waste into biogas.
- community based policies – that generate awareness on the benefits of local fuels can be taken up. Anna Hazare’s Ralegaon Siddhi is an example for this community movement.
- PM UJJWALA yojana - to promote LPG usage is a better alternative before switching over to more sustainable local resources.
- To promote biogas in rural and semi-urban areas, adopting the service-based enterprise model with suitable resource availability offers a sustainable approach. The model is being successfully implemented in Hoshiarpur, Punjab
- PNG needs to be promoted in urban areas beginning with the densely populated Tier-I and Tier-II/III cities, making LPG just one of the options to choose from rather than it having an edge over others.
- Possibility of leakages must also be eliminated by ensuring that subsidies of any kind are provided only through direct benefit transfer.
|NE movements||Mainland tribes|
|The tribes here practiced shifting cultivation. Ban on this from government met with resistance in NE India.||Here the tribes were majorly hunter gatherers and cattle herders. British created reserved forests to protect the produce and met with resistance.|
|They were almost always in favour of autonomy, like Naga movement, Ahom revolt.||This is not the case with mainland tribes.|
|They continued for a longer period due to support from Christian missionaries.||They were of shorter duration.|
|British granted them favour like allowing them to practice jhum like in Kukis revolt.||The revolts here are mostly not successful.|
- They rebelled to restore their traditional practices – of grazing, community living etc.,
- They protested against intrusion of outsiders.
- They had limited reach – geographically and ideologically.
- They were most of the time, not opposing the British rule, but just fighting to restore their traditional power positions.
- Subsidiary alliance, Doctrine of Lapse were employed by the British to annex many parts of India like Hyderabad, Awadh, Jhansi.
- Wars ranging from the Battle of Plassey, Battle of Buxar and the Mysore wars left the kindgoms impoverished and also brought large territorial gains to the British.
- Wars with neighbours like Burma, Afghanistan led to many tribal revolts in the region.
- commercialisation of agriculture and revenue settlement policies impoverished the peasants and forced them into debt traps.
- lack of industrialisation and destruction of local handicrafts and traditional artisanal industry
- imperial policy of economy led to import tariffs and duties that worked against Indian exports
- huge corruption in the company officials
- policies like dual Government where Indian officials were allowed to function as before but under the Overall control of the British Governor and British officials. The Indian officials had responsibility but no power while the Company’s officials had power but no responsibility.
- measures like the religious disabilities act, 1856 modified Hindu customs
- attempts at socio-religious reform like abolition of sati, support to widow remarriage and women’s education were resisted as interference by Indians.