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Q.1) Discuss the features of Sufism which makes it distinct from other sects of Islam. Comment on its relevance in the contemporary world. Answer: Features of sufism:
  1. They impute god with the qualities of effulgence, love, mercy, generosity and immanence.
  2. Instead of fear of god, they work for securing union with Him by pursuing the path of perfect love.
  3. They feel that it is His glory that is reflected in every object in the universe. They recommend love and kindness to all created beings.
  4. Removing ignorance and impurity of heart, they contemplate on God with a feeling of sincerity and purity.
  5. They recognize the value of repletion of God’s name and resort to music of a loving devotional character as an aid to concentration.
  6. Music often led to heightening of emotion which ended in ecstatic dancing.
  7. Their goal is union with God.
  8. Sufis fought against un islamic practices that crept into the religion such as racial prejudice,domination of conservative ulema,vulgar display of wealth and court traditions like sizda, paibosa and nauroz.
Relevance in contemporary world:
  1. Spread love
  2. Their belief  in god did not result in hatred towards other religions.
  3. They propagated purity and sincerity in worship.
  4. Religion became a healthy moral authority under Sufism.
  Q.2) What is the significance of food processing industries in India? Do you think that technology upgradation and modernization of food processing industries in India is a need. Answer: Significance of Food Processing for India:
  1. In India, there is huge land for food production.
  2. If there are good food processing industries in India, raw materials such as grains or meat can be converted into food for domestic and foreign consumption.
  3. Food processing units acts as a linkage between agriculture and industries.
  4. Food processing industries can absorb a major share of workers from the agriculture sector, who face disguised unemployment.
  5. It can result in better productivity and GDP growth.
  6. Reports indicate that food processing reduces food wastage and help in attaining food security.
  7. Processed food can be exported. This may assist government to get foreign exchange reserves.
Need for technology and modernization:
  1. The number of laboratories in the country is insufficient. Most of these laboratories lack world-class facilities and infrastructure.
  2. Many laboratories are not equipped with basic facilities for testing antibiotic residues, heavy metal contamination and other toxic contaminants in the food items.
  3. Most laboratories at sea ports are not fully equipped to handle testing of imported products, organic foods, residual radioactive matter, new toxins and allergens, textural analysis, residues of veterinary drugs, enzymes and hormones etc.
  4. Induction of modern technology makes a difference in terms of processing efficiency as well as improving the quality of the end product.
  5. Food Irradiation technology improves the safety and extends the shelf life of foods by reducing or eliminating microorganisms and insects. There are very few such irradiation labs in the country.
  Q.3) Discuss the importance and threats to the wetlands. Trace the national initiatives for wetland conservation. Answer: A wetland is a place where the land is covered by water, either salt, fresh or other. Marshes and ponds, the edge of a lake or ocean, the delta at the mouth of a river, low-lying areas that frequently flood—all of these are wetlands. Importance:
  1. Wetlands protect our shores from wave action, reduce the impacts of floods, absorb pollutants and improve water quality.
  2. They provide habitat for animals and plants and many contain a wide diversity of life, supporting plants and animals that are found nowhere else.
  3. Wetlands provide an important range of environmental, social and economic services.
  4. Many wetlands are areas of great natural beauty and many are important to Aboriginal people.
  5. Wetlands also provide important benefits for industry. For example, they form nurseries for fish and other freshwater and marine life.
  6. Wetlands are the vital link between land and water.
Threats: Over half of the world's wetlands have disappeared since 1900.
  1. Development and conversion continue to pose major threats to wetlands, despite their value and importance.
  2. A major threat is the draining of wetlands for commercial development, including tourism facilities, or agricultural land.
  3. Unwise use of freshwater to feed these developments poses a further threat.
  4. Alien invasive species have had severe impacts on local aquatic flora and fauna, and can upset the natural balance of an ecosystem.
  5. Pollution in wetlands is a growing concern, affecting drinking water sources  and biological diversity.
  6. Climate change is also taking its toll. Increases in temperature are causing polar ice to melt and sea levels to rise.
National initiatives:
  1. National Wetland Conservation Programme (NWCP) for conservation and wise use of wetlands in the country so as to prevent their further degradation.
  2. Ramsar Convention on Wetland provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources.
  3. Montreux Record under the Ramsar Convention is a register of wetland sites where changes in ecological character have occurred, are occurring, or are likely to occur as a result of technological developments, pollution or other human interference. It is maintained as part of the Ramsar List.
  Q.4) Discuss how the recently launched Fisheries and Aquaculture Infrastructure Development Fund (FIDF) will help in meeting the objectives of Blue Revolution/Neel Kranti Mission. Answer: FIDF:
  1. FIDF would provide concessional finance to State Governments, cooperatives, individuals and entrepreneurs etc., for taking up of the identified investment activities of fisheries development.
  2. Loan lending will be over a period of five years from 2018-19 to 2022-23 and maximum repayment will be over a period of 12 years inclusive of moratorium of two years on repayment of principal.
Objectives of Blue Revolution:
  1. Creation of fisheries infrastructure facilities both in marine and Inland fisheries sectors.
  2. To augment fish production to achieve its target of 15 million tonne by 2020 set under the Blue Revolution.
  3. To achieve a sustainable growth of 8% -9% thereafter to reach the fish production to the level of about 20 MMT by 2022-23.
  4. Employment opportunities to over 9.40 lakh fishers/fishermen/fisherfolk and other entrepreneurs in fishing and allied activities.
  5. To attract private investment in creation and management of fisheries infrastructure facilities.
  6. Adoption of new technologies.