Redesign policy for private investment

Source- The Indian Express Syllabus – GS 3- Investment models. Context- Partnerships with various stakeholders in the private sector is required for sustainable infrastructure creation in India What is PPP investment model? Public Private Partnership is a cooperative arrangement between public and private sectors. The PPP model displays three essential characteristics: Long term contractual arrangement.… Continue reading Redesign policy for private investment

UPSC Prelims 2020 answer key for all sets (A, B, C, D)

UPSC Prelims 2020 answer key for every set has been posted in the table below or you can use our score calculator for the same. Score calculator  UPSC Prelims 2020 was conducted on Sunday, October 4th and it has been reported that more than 50% of the candidates skipped the exam. About UPSC Prelims  Civil… Continue reading UPSC Prelims 2020 answer key for all sets (A, B, C, D)

7 PM | Antimicrobial Resistance in India- An Analysis | 18 January, 2019

Read In-depth analysis of all the Editorials here What is antimicrobial resistance? Antimicrobial resistance is resistance of a microorganism to an antimicrobial drug that was originally effective for treatment of infections caused by it. Among AMR, antibacterial resistance (ABR) is of prime concern. Microorganisms that develop antimicrobial resistance are called “superbugs” Antimicrobial Resistance in India- Statistics… Continue reading 7 PM | Antimicrobial Resistance in India- An Analysis | 18 January, 2019

 Brexit vote

News: Following the vote to reject the Brexit withdrawal agreement, UK Prime Minister won no confidence motion. Important Facts: What does Brexit mean Brexit is an abbreviation for “British exit,” referring to the UK’s decision in June, 2016 referendum to leave the European Union (EU). Reasons for Brexit: Economic migration from eastern Europe spiked after… Continue reading  Brexit vote

New Coastal Regulation Zones(CRZ) Notification 2018

Principle of CRZ 2018 notification Promoting economic growth in coastal regions while keeping in mind conservation principles of coastal regions Reasons for introduction of CRZ 2018 notification CRZ 2018 notification is based on recommendation of  Shailesh Nayak committee constituted by Ministry of Environment in June 2014 forcomprehensive evaluation of provisions under CRZ 2011 notification as… Continue reading New Coastal Regulation Zones(CRZ) Notification 2018

Manipur Protection from Mob Violence Bill, 2018- A Step in the Right Direction.

Context: The Manipur Assembly recently passed the Manipur Protection from Mob Violence Bill, 2018, becoming the first state in India to pass a law on mob lynching. What is mob lynching? Lynching is defined as putting to death by mob action without legal approval or permission.It is a form of instant justice being administered against… Continue reading Manipur Protection from Mob Violence Bill, 2018- A Step in the Right Direction.

Sedition, once more

Sedition, once more News: Sedition Charges under section 124A of Indian Penal Code invoked against Assamese scholars for remarks made against the proposed citizenship law. Section 124A – of Indian Penal Code whoever, by words, either spoken or written, or by signs, or by visible representation, or otherwise, brings or attempts to bring into hatred… Continue reading Sedition, once more

Revised Guidelines to regulate and control Ground Water Extraction in India

Context: The National Green Tribunal (NGT) has asked the Centre to “not give effect” the December 12, 2018 notification issued by the Union Water Resources Ministry on the extraction of groundwater. Revised Guidelines to regulate and control Ground Water Extraction in India, December 12th 2018 Water Conservation Fee (WCF):The revised guidelines introduced the concept of… Continue reading Revised Guidelines to regulate and control Ground Water Extraction in India

10% reservation and Basic structure

Context: Union government has passed an Act laying down 10% reservation for economically weaker sections and SC will hear a petition challenging the amendment alleging that it dilutes basic structure. 124th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2019: The Act amends Articles 15 and 16 of the Constitution to give reservation in jobs and educational institutionsto the economically… Continue reading 10% reservation and Basic structure

Student Suicides in India: Risk factors and Prevention

Context: The increasing number of student suicide cases in India necessitates to see how this delinquent issue can be addressed Student Suicides in India- Statistics According to a 2012 Lancet Report, India has one of the world’s highest suicide rates for youth aged 15 to 29 According to the National Crime Records Bureau, between 2014… Continue reading Student Suicides in India: Risk factors and Prevention

Half done: on the ban on plastic

News: Recently, Puducherry has announced a ban on single-use plastics effective from March 2019. Important Facts: So far 22 States and Union Territories has taken some sort of initiative to eliminate the plastic but at large the concern remains. Statistics on Plastic Use: PlasticConsumption: 13 million tonnes/ year AveragePer capita plasticconsumption: About 11kg- low as… Continue reading Half done: on the ban on plastic

National Clean Air Programme (NCAP)

Context: National Clean Air Programme (NCAP) launched by the government to tackle the increasing air pollution problem across the country. Objective: Overall objective of the NCAP is comprehensive mitigation actions for prevention, control and abatement of air pollution besides augmenting the air quality monitoring network across the country and strengthening the awareness and capacity building… Continue reading National Clean Air Programme (NCAP)

The Aadhaar and Other Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2018: A Critical Analysis

Context: The Aadhaar and Other Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2018 has recently been passed in Lok Sabha Background The Aadhaar is the brand name of the Unique Identification Number that the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) issues to every resident of India. It is a twelve-digit number which is linked with the resident’s demographic and… Continue reading The Aadhaar and Other Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2018: A Critical Analysis

Universal Basic Income:

Context: Sikkim government has decided to introduce UBI and implement it by 2022. About UBI: UBI is a minimum income (direct cash transfers) guaranteed by the state to every individual every month. It is premised on the belief that every person should have a right to a basic income to cover their needs, just by… Continue reading Universal Basic Income:

Farm Loan Waiver:

Context: Governments in newly elected states of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Rajasthan have announced loan write-offs for small and medium land-owning farmers and last year Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu announced farm loan waivers. Farm loans may be crop loans or investment loans taken to buy farm equipment. Both farmers and banks benefit… Continue reading Farm Loan Waiver:

No Detention Policy

Context:  The Rajya Sabha has passed the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (Amendment) Bill, 2019 What is No-Detention Policy? TheNo detention policy is a clause under the RTE Act 2009 as entered in Article 16. It states: “No child admitted in a school shall be held back in any class or expelled… Continue reading No Detention Policy

India Afghanistan Relations:

Context: US recently announced withdrawal of 7000 US troops from Afghanistan, a decision which would reduce its presence in Afghanistan by half and would force India to rethink its Afghan Policy. US’ South Asia/ Afghan Policy 2017: US announced deployment of additional 4000 troops in Afghanistan to train Afghan soldiers to avoid the collapse of… Continue reading India Afghanistan Relations:

Transgender Community in India

Context: The Lok Sabha has passed the Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill, 2016 with 27 amendments Who are Transgenders? According to World Health Organization Transgender is an umbrella term for people whose gender identity and expression does not conform to the norms and expectations traditionally associated with the sex assigned to them at birth… Continue reading Transgender Community in India

Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2016- A Critical Analysis

Context Recently, the Lok Sabha passed the Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2016 and is set to be placed before the Rajya Sabha. What is surrogacy? Surrogacy is an arrangement where a surrogate mother bears and delivers a child for another couple or person. Altruistic surrogacy refers to those surrogacy agreements where the surrogate does not receive… Continue reading Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2016- A Critical Analysis

Female Labour Force Participation in India

Context: According to a study published by Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER), there has been no rise in women work participation despite increasing literacy. Status of Female Labour Force Participation in India: According to ILO estimates, female labour force participation rate (FLPR) has decreased from33.8% in 2000to 27.3% 2015. ILO further… Continue reading Female Labour Force Participation in India

Surveillance state:

Context: A Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) notification authorized 10 Central agencies to intercept, monitor, and decrypt online communications and data. What is surveillance state A surveillance state is defined as a state which legally surveils all actions, locations, and friends of its citizens, in order to prevent crimes or in order to solve them faster.… Continue reading Surveillance state:


Context: Recently the Law Minister recommended giving more representation to SC/STs in judicial service through creation of All India Judicial Service. AIJS: AIJS is a proposed cadre of judicial officers to man the judiciary at the lower levels (below High Courts) recruited through an open competitive national level exam conducted on the lines of Civil… Continue reading ALL INDIA JUDICIAL SERVICE (AIJS)

India Maldives Relations

Context: Newly elected Maldivian President, Ibrahim Mohamed Solih, visited India in December 2018. Background India and Maldives share ethnic, linguistic, cultural, religious and commercial links and enjoy close, cordial and multi-dimensional relations. India was among the first to recognise Maldives after its independence in 1965 and to establish diplomatic relations with the country. As per… Continue reading India Maldives Relations

WTO Reforms:

About: The World Trade Organisation is a global international organisation that promotes and manages free and smooth trade among all its members. It was established in 1995, after taking over General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which came into force in 1948. GATT was focused only on trade while WTO is wider as it… Continue reading WTO Reforms:

Paris Climate Change Agreement -From Kyoto Protocol to Paris Agreement

Context: 196 countries at COP24, Katowice have agreed on a rulebook to implement the 2015 Paris Agreement. Background of Pro-active Climate negotiations The problem of climate change was brought to light at an international level by the first Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Report in 1990 which highlighted the issue as a subject… Continue reading Paris Climate Change Agreement -From Kyoto Protocol to Paris Agreement

Social Audit: An Analysis

‘Social Audit’ is “a public assembly where all the details of a project are scrutinized”. It is “a way of measuring, understanding, reporting and ultimately improving an organization’s/programme’s social and ethical performance”. Social Audit (SA): Social Audit is a process in which details of the resources, both financial and non-financial, is used by public agencies… Continue reading Social Audit: An Analysis


Context: Judiciary is increasingly being attacked by civil society for its new orientation towards the philosophy of political executive and becoming a part of partisan politics. Judicial activism: It is a “judicial philosophy which motivates judges to depart from the traditional precedents in favour of progressive and new social policies”. Judicial activism enjoins judges to… Continue reading JUDICIAL ACTIVISM AND JUDICIAL OVERREACH (ARTICLE 142)

E-pharmacy in India

Context: Madras and Delhi High Courts recently banned the online sale of medicines. Background: The order was in response to a PIL filed by a Delhi-based dermatologist who said that unregulated online sale of medicines could lead to substandard drugs being sold, some of which have psychotropic substances that can be misused for criminal activities.… Continue reading E-pharmacy in India

India’s INDCs- Progress and Challenges Ahead

Context: India has expressed confidence recently at COP24 at Katowice, Poland that it would achieve all its INDCs targets to tackle climate change ahead of the deadlines.India’s statement comes in the backdrop of new analysis by IEEFA  Institute for Energy Economic and Financial Analysis (IEEFA) is a US-based organisation that conducts research and analysis on… Continue reading India’s INDCs- Progress and Challenges Ahead


Context: Attorney-General K.K. Venugopal on Monday declined to give consent to the initiation of contempt proceedings against A.P. Chief Minister Jagan Mohan Reddy and his Principal Adviser Ajeya Kallam. What is Contempt of court? Contempt of Court is the offense of being disobedient to or being disrespectful towards a court of law. Any action which… Continue reading CONTEMPT OF COURT


At the recent G20 meeting in 2018, Japan, India and US conducted a trilateral dialogue. At the same venue, India, Russia and China also held a joint meeting. Contentious Issues between RIC and JAI members: China Trade wars between US and China, China’s trade distorting practices, economic colonialism and disrespect for rules based order. China’s… Continue reading JAI and RIC

Corporate governance Framework in India: Analysis

What is Corporate Governance: Corporate governance is the system by which companies are directed and controlled. Boards of directors are responsible for the governance of their companies.  Corporate governance is therefore about what the board of a company does and how it sets the values of the company, and it is to be distinguished from… Continue reading Corporate governance Framework in India: Analysis

Climate Finance

What is climate finance? Climate financerefers to local, national or transnational financing—drawn from public, private and alternative sources of financing—that seeks to support mitigation and adaptation actions to address climate change. The Convention (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement call for financial assistance from Parties with more financial resources to those that are… Continue reading Climate Finance

Road Safety: Importance, challenges and solutions

Roads are the arteries through which the economy sustains. Roads link producers to markets, workers to jobs, students to school, and the sick to hospitals, hence are vital to any development agenda. However, roads can only contribute if they are safe for commuters and government’s main thrust of accident prevention and control has been on… Continue reading Road Safety: Importance, challenges and solutions

Anti Defection Law

News: Vice President M Venkaiah Naidu has advocated a need for an amendment to the Anti-Defection Law, setting a specific timeframe for disposing of defection cases. What is Anti-Defection Law? The Tenth Schedule — popularly known as the Anti-Defection Act — was included in the Constitution in 1985 via the 52nd Amendment Act, 1985. The… Continue reading Anti Defection Law

Nutrition in India

Context- In the context of recently releasedthe Global Nutrition Report 2018, we shall analyse the status of nutrition in India in this article. Fast Facts: Indiasuffers from twin-problem of under-nutrition and obesity. Malnutrition is more common in India than in sub-Saharan African countries where per capita income is much lower than that of Andhra Pradesh, Andaman and Nicobar,… Continue reading Nutrition in India

Social forestry, Agro-forestry and Urban forestry: An Overview

Urban forestry: Urban forestry is the art and science of managing trees and forest resources in and around urban community ecosystems for availing physiological, sociological, economic and aesthetic benefits trees provide for society. Urban Forestry concentrates on all tree-dominated as well as other green resources in and around urban areas, such as woodlands, public and… Continue reading Social forestry, Agro-forestry and Urban forestry: An Overview

G-20 An Overview

About: The G20, or Group of 20, is main international forum for economic, financial and political cooperation which addresses major global challenges and seeks to generate public policies that resolve them. Formed in 1999, as an inclusive forum of finance ministers and central bank presidents in response to currency crisis of late 1990s that especially hit Southeast Asia and Russia.… Continue reading G-20 An Overview

Qatar to withdraw from OPEC

News: Qatar decides to withdraw from the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) from January 2019 Reasons for withdrawal: OPEC mainly governs oil production of its members and influences global oil prices, but oil plays a small role in Qatar’s economy, which now wants to focus on liquefied natural gas (LNG) development, which is… Continue reading Qatar to withdraw from OPEC

Ayushman Bharat- National Health Protection Mission (AB-NHPM)

Healthcare in India Healthcare in India is largely underpenetrated, with government expenditure at around 25% of the GDP and an underperforming public healthcare ecosystem. Problem of 3A’s– refer to the figure Dual disease burden: Even as the incidence of lifestyle diseases is steadily on the rise, a vast majority of rural and poor patients still… Continue reading Ayushman Bharat- National Health Protection Mission (AB-NHPM)

Farm Distress:An analysis

News:Thousands of farmers and agricultural workers marched towards the parliament recently to demand debt waivers and higher crop prices, highlighting the acute farm distress. Facts: Agriculture grew at meagre 2.1% when national GDP grew at 6.5% in 2017-18 Contribution of agricultural output in total GVA is one third Agriculture share in economy has fallen from… Continue reading Farm Distress:An analysis

Namami Gange

Context: The Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) report for Uttarakhandshowed that the state failed on the rejuvenation of the Ganga through the “NamamiGange” programme. Status and Causes of Pollution in River Ganga: Approximately 12,000 million litres a day (MLD) of sewage is generated in the Ganga basin, for which there is currently a treatment capacity… Continue reading Namami Gange

Cyclones Titli

Context:The Regional Integrated Multi-Hazard Early Warning System (RIMES) has termed ‘Titli’, the severe cyclonic storm that devastated Odisha in October, as ‘rarest cyclone’. Note: In October 2018, Severe Cyclonic Storm Gaza had hit coastal areas of Tamil Nadu RIMES The RIMES is an intergovernmental body registered under United Nations. It is owned and managed by… Continue reading Cyclones Titli