Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTG)

Context: John Allen Chau, an American national who secretly landed on North Sentinel Island, was allegedly killed by people belonging to the protected Sentinelese tribe (a PVTG) in November 2018 Who are Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups(PVTGs)? The PVTGs are the marginalized section of the Scheduled tribes of India. They are a section who are relatively… Continue reading Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTG)

Gaganyaan Mission

What is Gaganyaan Mission? Gaganyaan is India’s first Human Space Flight Programme to be launched by Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) by 2022. The programme will make India the fourth nation in the world to launch a Human Spaceflight Mission. So far, only the USA, Russia and China have launched human spaceflight missions. A brief… Continue reading Gaganyaan Mission

India’s Nuclear Triad

Context: INS Arihant, India’s first nuclear ballistic missile submarine, has completed its first “deterrence patrol”, operationalising India’s nuclear triad.  What is Nuclear Triad? Nuclear Triad is a three-sided military-force structure consisting of land-launched nuclear missiles, nuclear-missile-armed submarines, and strategic aircraft with nuclear bombs and missiles. Nuclear Triad essentially has three major components-the strategic bombers, Inter… Continue reading India’s Nuclear Triad

Swachh Bharat Abhiyaan

What is sanitation and hygiene? Sanitation means measures necessary for improving and protecting health and wellbeing of the people. Sanitation is any system that promotes proper disposal of human and animal wastes, proper use of toilet and avoiding open space defaecation. Hygiene is the practice of keeping oneself and the surroundings clean, especially to avoid… Continue reading Swachh Bharat Abhiyaan

Internal migration in India

What is migration? Migration is defined as the movement of people from one place to another across the political boundaries- national (internal) or international. It is an integral part and an important factor in redistributing the population over time and space. Migrants who move within the boundaries of their own country are known as internal… Continue reading Internal migration in India

Slums in India

What is a slum? Slum is a contiguous settlement where the inhabitants are characterized as having inadequate housing and basic services. Cities Alliance Action Plan describes slums as neglected parts of cities where housing and living conditions are appallingly poor. Census of India 2011 explained slums as residential areas where dwellings areunfit for human habitation… Continue reading Slums in India

3D Printing

What is 3D Printing? Three-dimensional printing (3-D printing), also known as Additive manufacturing (AM) is a process of joining materials to make objects from 3D model data, usually layer upon layer. It is basically a process of making three dimensional solid objects from a digital file. This is opposite of ‘Subtractive Manufacturing’which works on removal of… Continue reading 3D Printing

Payment Regulation in India

Payment Ecosystem in India: A “payment system” means a system that enables payment to be effected between a payer and a beneficiary, involving clearing, payment or settlement service or all of them. Settlement’ means the settlement of payment instructions received and these include settlement of securities, foreign exchange or derivatives or other transactions.  Based on the… Continue reading Payment Regulation in India

Centre-RBI Conflict

Context: RBI Board Meeting to be held on 19th November 2018 Reserve Bank of India: The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is India’s central bank, also known as the banker’s bank. The RBI controls monetary and other banking policies of the Indian government. The origins of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) 1926: The Royal Commission on Indian Currency… Continue reading Centre-RBI Conflict

PM-AASHA- An Analysis

Context Cabinet has recently approved a new Umbrella Scheme “Pradhan Mantri Annadata Aay Sanrakshan Abhiyan’ (PM-AASHA) What is PM-AASHA? PM-AASHA is a recently launched (September 2018) umbrella Scheme “Pradhan Mantri Annadata Aay Sanrakshan Abhiyan” (PM-AASHA) to guarantee MSP to the farmers. The scheme reflects the government’s commitment to ensure remunerative prices to farmers for their… Continue reading PM-AASHA- An Analysis

Civil Aviation in India

Context: The Ministry of Civil Aviation is likely to announce the third phase of the regional air connectivity scheme, UDAN, next month. What is Civil Aviation? The civil aviation sector consists of several segments including helicopter/seaplane services, ground handling services, maintenance and repair organizations, flying training institutes, and technical training institutions. Civil Aviation Sector in… Continue reading Civil Aviation in India

Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises in India: An Analysis

Context: Recently, the Indian Prime Minister announced a number of measures to make it easier for micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) to access credit. What are Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises? According to Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development (MSMED) Act, 2006, there are two categories of MSMEs in the country – manufacturing and… Continue reading Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises in India: An Analysis

Polio in India

Context: Type-2 polio virus contamination detected in the vials used for immunisation in Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Telangana What is poliomyelitis/polio? Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis is an acute infectious disease caused by polio virus. The virus is a human enterovirus of the Picornaviridae There are three types of Polio Virus: 1,2,3-Single stranded RNA… Continue reading Polio in India

India-based Neutrino Observatory

Context:  The National Green Tribunal (NGT) has upheld the environmental clearance granted to the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). What is neutrino? A neutrino is a sub atomic particle with no electric charge. They are considered to be the second most abundant particle in the universe, after photons, or light particles. Neutrinos were initially thought to… Continue reading India-based Neutrino Observatory

Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and Its Prevention

“A world free of nuclear weapons would be a global public good of highest order”-Ban-Ki-Moon Context U.S. President Donald Trump declared that the U.S. is quitting the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty, a bilateral agreement with Russia signed in 1987. Nuclear Proliferation Proliferation means rapidly increasing the number or amount of something.The term nuclear proliferation… Continue reading Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and Its Prevention

Monuments in India: issues and Challenges

Context: The Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation wants monuments like Swaminarayan Temple, Chakudiya Mahadev and Karnamukteshwar temple and others to be included in the list of heritage monuments protected by the Archaeological Survey of India. What is an Ancient Monument? The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958 defines an ‘Ancient Monument’ as any structure,… Continue reading Monuments in India: issues and Challenges

Child marriage in India

Context:The Supreme Courtdismissed a PIL petition seeking a judicial order to lower the legal marriageable age of men from 21 to 18 years. Definition: Child marriage in India is defined as the marriage solemnized between two people where the female is below the age of 18 years and the male is below the age of… Continue reading Child marriage in India

Issues with museum in India

Context: INS Viraat, now decommissioned, is all set to be converted into India’s first ever moored maritime museum-cum-marine adventure centre What is a museum? A museum is an institution in which objects of historical, scientific, artistic, or cultural interest are stored and exhibited. ICOM (International Council of Museums) defines museum as “A museum is a… Continue reading Issues with museum in India

Antiquities and Art Treasures Act in India : An Analysis

Context:The recent recovery of antiques from a house in Chennai by the Idol Wing of CID Tamil Nadu highlights the issue of illegal possession and trade of antiques and art treasures in India What are antiquities? According to the Antiquities and Art Treasures Act, 1972, an “antiquity” is an article or object that is at… Continue reading Antiquities and Art Treasures Act in India : An Analysis

Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)

Context: The CBI has recently been prominently in the news, due to the public antagonism between the two top officers Central Bureau of Investigation: The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), functioning under Dept. of Personnel, Ministry of Personnel, Pension & Public Grievances, Government of India, is the premier investigating police agency in India. It is… Continue reading Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)

Air Pollution in India

Context: As part of graded action plan against rising air pollution in Delhi, Environment Pollution Control Authority (EPCA) has said private cars will be stopped from plying in Delhi if air pollution continues to worsen. Basics What is air pollution? Air pollution is the introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulates, or biological materials that… Continue reading Air Pollution in India

Cyber Security in India

Context: Data privacy, security, cybercrime and related issues, currently under the purview of the IT ministry, may soon be overseen by the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) and the Telecom Commission (TC) What is cyber space? It is an electronic world created by interconnected networks of information technology and the information on those networks.… Continue reading Cyber Security in India

Inland Waterways in India- Issues and Challenges

Context:In a first, the Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI) will transport container cargo belonging PepsiCo (India) from Kolkata to Varanasi on river Ganga (National Waterway-1). What are inland waterways? Rivers, lakes, canals, backwaters and reservoirs primarily constitute the source for inland waterways. A stretch of water, not part of the sea, over which craft… Continue reading Inland Waterways in India- Issues and Challenges

GM Crops in India: Issues and Challenges

Context: Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC) has approved field studies of GM mustard on honey bee and other pollinations at its 136th meeting. Basics: Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO): Genetically Modified Organisms, are the ones in which the genetic material (DNA) has been altered in such a way as to get the required quality. The technology is often… Continue reading GM Crops in India: Issues and Challenges

Threats to Western Ghats and the Way Forward

Context: The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) has come out with a draft notification proposing 56,825 square kilometre area of the Western Ghats as an ESA and providing guidelines on development projects in the region. About the Western Ghats The Western Ghats, also known as ‘Sahyadri’, constitute a 1600 km long mountain… Continue reading Threats to Western Ghats and the Way Forward

IL&FS crisis

Context: In response to the debt default by Infrastructure Leasing and Financial Services (IL&FS), the government has appointed a 6-member board to manage the IL&FS. What is IL&FS? IL&FS Ltd, or Infrastructure Leasing & Finance Services, is a core investment company and serves as the holding company of the IL&FS Group. IL&FS was founded in 1987… Continue reading IL&FS crisis

Child Labour in India

Context: The Labour Ministry has constituted a task force to ensure the effective implementation of the Child  Labour (Prohibition & Regulation) Act, 1986. Who is a child? “Child” as defined by the Child and Adolescent Labour (prohibition and regulation) Act 1986 is a person who has not completed the age of 14 years What is… Continue reading Child Labour in India

Child Abuse

Context Union ministry of law and justice has ratified a proposal of women and child development ministry to remove the time limit and age limit for reporting cases of sexual abuse among children. Who is a child? The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child defines child as “a human being below the age of 18 years… Continue reading Child Abuse

Human Capital Index

Context:India has been ranked at 115 out of 157 countries on Human Capital Index (HCI) released by World Bank as part of World Development Report (WDR) 2019.Broader theme of the World Development Report (WDR) is “The Changing Nature of Work”. What is human capital? Human capital consists of the knowledge, skills, and health that people… Continue reading Human Capital Index


“When women are empowered and can claim their rights and access to land, leadership, opportunities and choices, economies grow, food security is enhanced and prospects are improved for current and future generations”- Michelle Bachelet – Ex-President of Chile Executive Director of UN Women and United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights Context: Since 2017, October… Continue reading FEMINIZATION OF INDIAN AGRICULTURE

Criminalization of Politics in India

Context: SC has directed Parliament to pass a law to stop criminalization of politics What is criminalization of politics? Criminalization of politics means the rising participation of criminals and people facing criminal charges in politics. The term indicates people with criminal backgrounds becoming politicians and elected representatives. Extent of criminalization of Indian Politics: The Vohra… Continue reading Criminalization of Politics in India

Forest Fires in India

Context: According to a joint report by the Ministry of Environment and Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC) and World Banktitled “Strengthening Forest Fire Management in India” 60% districts in India are affected by forest fires each year. Basic Concepts: The National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM), India defines forest fire as an unclosed and freely… Continue reading Forest Fires in India

Sexual Harassment at Workplace

“Country and Nations which do not respect women, have never become great nor will ever be in future”. – Swami Vivekananda Context:As India embarks upon the #MeToo movement, here is an overview of the issue of sexual harassment at workplace in India. What is sexual harassment? Sexual harassment is a behaviour with a sexual connotation… Continue reading Sexual Harassment at Workplace

Tuberculosis in India

Context: The United Nations’ high level meeting on tuberculosis, held on 26 September 2018, has committed to accelerating efforts and increasing funding towards achieving the agenda of the Sustainable Development Goals to end the tuberculosis epidemic by 2030. Note SDG 3.3: By 2030, end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases and… Continue reading Tuberculosis in India

Sustainable Agriculture

Sustainable Agriculture: The concept of sustainable agriculture gained prominence since the publication of the Brundtland Report in 1987. Sustainable Agriculture involves the processes that would enable to meet the current and long term societal needs for food, fiber and other resources, while maximizing benefits through the conservation of natural resources and maintenance of ecosystem functions.… Continue reading Sustainable Agriculture

Green mobility

Green Mobility Green mobility refers to all those mobility options that emit lower emissions – in terms CO2 g/km than pure Internal Combustion Engine vehicles – through the use of alternate fuels, drive-train technologies or other measures Bio-fuel and Methanol based mobility Compressed Natural gas (CNG) based mobility Electric and Hybrid Mobility (xEV) Hydrogen energy… Continue reading Green mobility

Universal Health Coverage and India

Context Ayushman Bharat-Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojna (AB-PMJAY) launched to achieve Universal Health Coverage. What is Universal Health Coverage? UHC is visualised as an ideal state of health system organisation in which all individuals and communities receive quality health services as per needs, without suffering financial hardship. UHC is also key to achieving the World… Continue reading Universal Health Coverage and India

Intellectual Property Rights

Context: Despite being actively engaged in research and new innovations, over 35% people are not aware of intellectual property rights (IPR), a latest study revealed. About IPR IPR provide certain exclusive rights to the inventors or creators of that property, in order to enable them to reap commercial benefits from their creative efforts or reputation.… Continue reading Intellectual Property Rights

Threats to Coral Reefs

Context The Reef & Rainforest Research Centre (RRRC) has reported that some affected areas of Australia’s Great Barrier Reef are showing “substantial signs of recovery.” Corals: Coral polyps are small (0.25-12 inches), soft-bodied marine organisms. They belong to the group cnidaria Note: other cnidarians include hydras, jellyfish, and sea anemones The coral polyps share a… Continue reading Threats to Coral Reefs

E-Commerce and Draft Policy

Context The Commerce Ministry to carry out a fresh round of consultations with stakeholders to address concerns raised by many on the proposed e-commerce policy What is e-commerce? Electronic commerce or ecommerce is a term for any type of business, or commercial transaction that involves the transfer of information across the Internet. Types of e-commerce… Continue reading E-Commerce and Draft Policy

Undertrials in India

“Justice delayed is justice denied.”- English adage Context: The Supreme Court has recently set up a panel headed by a retired judge of the court to usher in drastic prison reforms and decongest overcrowded jails.It will examine the functioning of undertrial review committees, availability of legal aid and advice. Who are Undertrials? Undertrial is a… Continue reading Undertrials in India

Prison Reforms

“Hate the Crime and not the Criminal”-Mahatma Gandhi Context: The Supreme Court has constituted a three-member committee headed by Justice Amitava Roy to look into issues pertaining to jails in India and suggest reforms. Prison or jail:Itis a facility in which individuals are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of… Continue reading Prison Reforms


Context Recently the government has brought an ordinance that criminalises Instant Triple Talaq. Triple Talaq What is Instant Triple Talaq? It is a distorted form of Talaq used by a Muslim man to divorce his wife by just uttering ‘Talaq’ three times. It is irrevocable form of Talaq where there is no scope of reconciliation.… Continue reading TRIPLE TALAQ