Personality Test of UPSC Civil Services Examination 2020 starts from August 02, 2021

Dear aspirants, As the Covid-19 Cases starts reducing in the country, the UPSC today(09.06.2021) announced that the commission will start the Personality Test of CSE 2020 Candidates from August 2nd, 2021. The Union Public Service Commission has declared the results of the Civil Services (Main) Examination, 2020 on 23rd March 2021. The UPSC decided to… Continue reading Personality Test of UPSC Civil Services Examination 2020 starts from August 02, 2021

[Prelims 2020] List of UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritages from India

What do you mean by intangible cultural heritage? Intangible cultural heritage means the traditions or living expressions inherited from our ancestors and passed through generations as a way of life. These include oral traditions, performing arts, social practices, rituals, festive events, knowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe and the knowledge and skills to… Continue reading [Prelims 2020] List of UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritages from India

Debt funds as an Investment Option

  What are debt funds? While equity funds invest mostly in shares of listed companies, debt funds invest in instruments like government bonds, commercial papers (CPs), certificate of deposits (CDs) and non-convertible debentures (NCDs). Debt funds invest in such securities and earn interest income that is shared among the investors after deducting the fund-management charges.… Continue reading Debt funds as an Investment Option

Monetary Instruments: Commercial paper,Certificate of Deposit,Debentures,Systematic Investment Plan

Commercial paper: Commercial paper is a money-market security issues by large corporations to obtain funds to meet short-term obligations and is backed only by an issuing bank or company promise to pay the face amount on the maturity date specified on the note. Is an unsecured, short-term instrument issued by a corporation, typically for the… Continue reading Monetary Instruments: Commercial paper,Certificate of Deposit,Debentures,Systematic Investment Plan

Forest Department orders to shut tiger reserves during Monsoons

Context Tourism zones falling in the national park areas of Ranthambhore and Sariska tiger reserves in Rajasthan will remain closed during monsoon in 2017. Key Facts Following a meeting of the State Wildlife Board’s standing committee and Ranthambhore Tiger Conservation Foundation on June 9th, the Forest Department had issued orders to keep the tiger reserves… Continue reading Forest Department orders to shut tiger reserves during Monsoons

India – Israel relations doesn’t hamper India’s relations with Palestine

Context India’s relations with Israel should not come at the “expense of ties” with Palestine in respect to Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s visit to Israel. India is trying to manage its own balance in the region, and making a separation between these ties as well. India and Israel will sign a unique Strategic Partnership on… Continue reading India – Israel relations doesn’t hamper India’s relations with Palestine

Learn about Election Commission of India

About Election commission: It operates under Article 324 of the Constitution. It is a permanent constitutional body. ·Originally the commission consist only a Chief Election Commissioner.  Presently it consists of Chief Election Commissioner and two Election Commissioners. ·The Constitution of India has vested in the Election Commission of India the superintendence direction and control of… Continue reading Learn about Election Commission of India

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)

  Key Highlights The Association of Southeast Asian Nations is a regional intergovernmental organization encompassing ten Southeast Asian states to promote the intergovernmental cooperation in various sectors such as economic, political, military, educational and cultural integration amongst its members and Asian states. Since its inception on 8 August 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand, the organization’s membership has expanded to include Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, and Vietnam. Its… Continue reading The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)


The Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act was enacted in 1958 to bring under control what the government of India considered ‘disturbed’ areas. The AFSPA offers powers to the Army and Central forces deployed in “disturbed areas” to kill anyone acting in contravention of law, arrest and search any premises without a warrant. AFSPA provides cover… Continue reading AFSPA

Marriage Registration In India

The Registration of Births and Deaths (Amendment) Bill was introduced in 1969, to include registration of marriages but it did not cover all citizens. The National Commission for Women had offered a concrete solution to a number of problems arising out of non-registrations of marriages by drafting a Compulsory Registration of Marriages Bill in 2005… Continue reading Marriage Registration In India

India-UK relation

India-UK relation (Historical Significance) East India Company (1600–1857): Trade was established between Tudor England and Mughal India in 1600 when Elizabeth I granted the newly formed East India Company a royal charter. Following the Indian Mutiny of 1857, where Indian sepoys rebelled against their British officers, the East India Company was dissolved the following year. British Raj (1858–1947): In 1858, the British Government assumed direct control of… Continue reading India-UK relation

Arms Act, 1959

The Arms Act, 1959 governs matters related to acquisition, possession, manufacture, sale, transportation, import and export of arms and ammunition. It defines a specific class of ‘prohibited’ arms and ammunitions, restricts their use and prescribes penalties for contravention of its provisions. Section 7 of the Act forbids the manufacture, sale, and use of prohibited arms… Continue reading Arms Act, 1959

Israel – Palestine Issue

Background Israel is the world’s only Jewish state, located just east of the Mediterranean Sea. Palestinians, the Arab population that comes from the land Israel now controls, refer to the territory as Palestine. Palestine want to establish a state by that name on all or part of the same land. The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is over… Continue reading Israel – Palestine Issue

Sino-India war of 1962

India was unexpectedly attacked on October 20, 1962 in what famously came to be known as Sino-India war of 1962. On October 20, 1962, China’s People’s Liberation Army invaded India in Ladakh, and across the McMahon Line in the then North-East Frontier Agency Till the start of the war, the Indian side was confident that… Continue reading Sino-India war of 1962

Doklam Plateau

It is an 89 patch of territory in Chumbi Valley between Sikkim and Bhutan, claimed by China. It’s called the Donglang region by China, Bhutan calls it Doklam Plateau and India refers to it as Doka La. The Chinese are constructing a road in this region, although opposed by both Bhutan and India. This… Continue reading Doklam Plateau

Trilateral junction between China, India and Bhutan

India’s claim line in the eastern sector follows the McMahon Line. The line drawn by McMahon in 1914 Simla Treaty maps clearly starts at 27°45’40″N, a trijunction between Bhutan, China, and India, and from there, extends eastwards. Most of the fighting in the eastern sector before the start of the war would take place immediately north… Continue reading Trilateral junction between China, India and Bhutan

Kailash Mansarovar Pilgrimage

  • Kailash Manasarovar Yatra (KMY) is known for its religious value, cultural significance. It is undertaken by hundreds of people every year. Holding significance for Hindus as the abode of Lord Shiva, it holds religious importance also for the Jains and the Buddhists. • As a result of this stand-off, China has denied passage… Continue reading Kailash Mansarovar Pilgrimage

National Health Policy 2017

The Union Cabinet approved the National Health Policy 2017 by replacing the previous policy which was framed 15 years ago in 2002. It aims at providing healthcare in an “assured manner” to all by addressing current and emerging challenges arising from the ever changing socio-economic, epidemiological and technological scenarios. It aims to raise public healthcare… Continue reading National Health Policy 2017

What is CO2 sink?

A carbon sink is a natural or artificial reservoir that accumulates and stores some carbon-containing chemical compound for an indefinite period. The concept has become more widely known because of its role in Kyoto Protocol The process by which carbon sinks remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere is known as carbon sequestration. The major… Continue reading What is CO2 sink?

Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2)

The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) is a NASA satellite mission intended to provide global space-based observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 was launched 2 July 2014 aboard a Delta II OCO’s measurements are designed to be accurate enough to show for the first time the geographic distribution of carbon dioxide sources and… Continue reading Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2)

Restriction on Freedom of Speech and Expression

Article 19 (2) contains the grounds on which restrictions on the freedom of speech and expression can be imposed – Security of State:Under Article 19(2) reasonable restrictions can be imposed on freedom of speech and expression in the interest of security of State. The term “security of state” refers only to serious and aggravated forms… Continue reading Restriction on Freedom of Speech and Expression

Article 19 (1) (a)

    Article 19(1)(a) of Indian Constitution says that all citizens have the right to freedom of speech and expression. Freedom of Speech and expression means the right to express one’s own convictions and opinions freely by words of mouth, writing, printing, pictures or any other mode. It thus includes the expression of one’s idea… Continue reading Article 19 (1) (a)

Freedom of Press

The fundamental right of the freedom of press implicit in the right the freedom of speech and expression, is essential for the political liberty and proper functioning of democracy. The Indian Press Commission says that “Democracy can thrive not only under the vigilant eye of legislature, but also under the care and guidance of public… Continue reading Freedom of Press

Case History

In the 2007 case of breach of privilege against Ambassador Ronen Sen, the Lok Sabha Committee on privileges held that the phrase “headless chicken” was not used by Shri Sen in respect of MPs or politicians. No action was taken against him. In 2008, an editor of an Urdu weekly referred to the deputy chairman… Continue reading Case History

Provisions on The Breach of Privilege

According to the Article 194 of the Indian Constitution, there are privileges provided to the state legislature, its members and committees and Article 105 does the same for Parliament and its members. Privileges such as freedom of speech in state legislature/Parliament, immunity to proceedings in court for anything said in the legislature/ Parliament, the House… Continue reading Provisions on The Breach of Privilege

Key Highlights

Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates have handed over a list of 13-point demand list to the Qatari regime The list reportedly demands Qatar to conclude all trade ties with Iran, end military cooperation with Turkey and shut down the Al Jazeera news network. Qatar is however, reluctant to comply with the… Continue reading Key Highlights

National Data Repository

The main objective is to setup National Data Repository of reliable exploration and production data for India with provisions for seamless access and on-line data management. Specific goals are: To validate, store, maintain and reproduce high quality and reliable geoscientific data To facilitate efficient data reporting, data exchange, and data trading among existing players including… Continue reading National Data Repository

Open Acreage License Policy

OALP gives an option to a company looking for exploring hydrocarbons to select the exploration blocks on its own, without waiting for the formal bid round from the Government. Under OALP, a bidder intending to explore hydrocarbons like oil and gas, coal bed methane, gas hydrate etc., may apply to the Government seeking exploration of… Continue reading Open Acreage License Policy

Discovered Small Field Bid

Ministry of Petroleum of Natural Gas (MoPNG) announced Discovered Small Field (DSF) Bid Round 2016 on 25thMay 2016, offering 46 contract areas across 9 sedimentary basins, for development. The technical bid documents were opened on 21stNovember at DGH’s Noida office in the presence of the all the bidders. The evaluation of the bids would be undertaken… Continue reading Discovered Small Field Bid

What is Delphi Method

It is a way of organising the ‘expert’ forecasts about the future. It works by the principle that several heads are better than one, to seek maximum likelihood of some future scenarios. Typically a questionnaire is passed on to a number of experts to acquire their independent The information from the first questionnaire is first… Continue reading What is Delphi Method

Sagar Nidhi

In 2008, India commissioned the Sagar Nidhi, the pride of the National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT), for research. An ice class vessel, it can cut through thin ice of 40 cm depth and is the first Indian vessel to navigate Antarctic waters. The ship is the first of its kind in the country and… Continue reading Sagar Nidhi


Bharti, India’s latest research station operation since 2012, has been constructed using 134 recycled shipping containers, to help researchers work in safety despite the harsh weather. It is India’s first committed research facility and is located about 3000 km east of Maitri. Bharti made India an elite member of the club of nine nations that… Continue reading Bharti

Dakshin Gangotri

Dakshin Gangotri was the first Indian scientific research base station established in Antarctica, as a part of the Indian Antarctic Program. Located at a distance of 2,500 kilometres from the South Pole, it was established during the third Indian expedition to Antarctica in 1983/84. This was the first time an Indian team spent a winter… Continue reading Dakshin Gangotri


Maitri is India’s second permanent research station in Antarctica. It was built and finished in 1989, shortly before the first station Dakshin Gangotri was buried in ice and abandoned in 1990/91. Maitri is situated on the rocky mountainous region called Schirmacher Oasis. India also built a freshwater lake around Maitri known as Lake Priyadarshini.

The Antarctic Treaty System

The Treaty System includes the recommendations, measures, decisions and resolutions of the Consultative Meetings relating to matters such as: Scientific cooperation; protection of the Antarctic environment; conservation of plants and animals; preservation of historic sites; designation and management of protected areas; management of tourism; information exchange; collection of meteorological data; hydrographic charting; logistic cooperation; and… Continue reading The Antarctic Treaty System