Managing Climate Change: A Strategy for India – Explained, pointwise

For 7PM Editorial Archives click HERE → Introduction Climate Change is a clear and present danger. The latest IPCC Assessment Report has warned that if nothing is done, global warming is likely to reach at least +2.8°C by the end of the century. Developing countries will be most seriously impacted by the impending disasters. Globally, there is a concerted… Continue reading Managing Climate Change: A Strategy for India – Explained, pointwise

Urban Governance Index 2020

Source : Click here News: The Urban Governance Index 2020 has been released. Facts: Published by: The index has been published by Praja Foundation, a Mumbai-based think tank. Purpose: The index ranks states to indicate where they stand in terms of real empowerment of grassroot democracy and local self government. Themes: The ranking is based on these main themes—… Continue reading Urban Governance Index 2020

Sea water pollution

Seawater Pollution: It is polluted mostly near the coast through the disposal of urban and industrial waste matters into the coastal waters. Causes Discharge of sewage, industrial effluents and toxic chemicals from urban areas and industrial establishment. Discharge of solid waste materials mainly plastics, microbeads, etc. According to UNEP, plastic accounts for 90% of all… Continue reading Sea water pollution

Water Pollution: Sources

Water Pollution refers to the deterioration of physical (such as color, odor, turbidity, taste, temperature), chemical (such as acidity, alkalinity, salinity, etc.), and biological (presence of bacteria, coliform MPN, algae, etc.) characteristics of water through natural and anthropogenic processes to such an extent that it becomes harmful to human beings, plants, and animal communities. SOURCES… Continue reading Water Pollution: Sources


Effects on Weather and Climate   Air pollution changes our planet’s climate Some types cause global warming to speed up. Others cause global warming to slow down by creating a temporary cooling effect for a few days or weeks. Depletion of Ozone Chlorofluorocarbons attacked and destroyed the ozone layer, producing holes that would allow dangerous… Continue reading EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION

Secondary Air Pollutants

 Secondary Air Pollutants  Smog is a kind of air pollution. Its types are: Classic smog results from large amounts of coal burning in an area caused by a mixture of smoke and Sulphur dioxide. Modern smog does not usually come from coal but from vehicular and industrial emissions that are acted on in the atmosphere… Continue reading Secondary Air Pollutants

Primary Air Pollutants

Primary Air pollutants POLLUTANTS SOURCES EFFECTS/IMPACTS Carbon Dioxide   Natural Sources: Exhalation through organisms. Forest fires and volcanoes, hot springs and geysers It is freed from carbonate rocks by dissolution in water and acids. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water, it occurs naturally in groundwater, rivers and lakes, in ice caps and glaciers and also… Continue reading Primary Air Pollutants


According to the WHO, air pollution is defined as limited to situations in which the outdoor ambient atmosphere contains materials in concentration, which are harmful to the environment and his/her surrounding environment. The nature, dimensions, and magnitude of air pollution depends on a variety of factors such as residence time of pollutants in the atmosphere,… Continue reading AIR POLLUTION


A pollutant is defined as any form of energy or matter or action that causes a state of disequilibrium from the state of equilibrium in any existing natural ecosystem. Pollutants are those unnecessary materials that are barely degradable and cause harmful effects to the environment. TYPES OF POLLUTANTS On the basis of source of genesis… Continue reading Pollutants


There is a circulation of chemical nutrients like oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, and water, etc. through the physical and biological world; between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere. These cycles are known as biogeochemical cycles. These cycles are natural pathways of the circulation of essential elements of life. For the survival of the major… Continue reading BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES

Ecological Pyramids

Ecological pyramids are the diagrammatic representations of the feeding relationship and energy transfers in the ecosystem. They are of three types: Pyramid of Numbers, Pyramid of Biomass and Pyramid of Energy. Pyramid of Numbers: It represents the relationship between number of individuals of primary producers and consumers at different trophic levels. It can be upright… Continue reading Ecological Pyramids

Food chains and Food webs

Food Chains A food chain describes how energy and nutrients move through an ecosystem. It basically shows who eats what in the ecosystem. Thus, the transfer of energy from the source in plants through a series of organisms by eating and being eaten constitutes food chains. At each transfer, a large proportion of energy is… Continue reading Food chains and Food webs

Ecological niche

The term ecological niche was developed by Charles Elton. Ecological niche may be defined as ‘the functional role and position (micro-habitat) of species in its ecosystem, including what resources it uses, how and when it uses the resources, and how it interacts with other species. The ecosystem stability depends upon the diversity of the niche.… Continue reading Ecological niche

Ecological succession

F.E. Clement postulated the concept of Vegetation/Ecological succession which is the process of change in the species structure of an ecological community over time. The time scale can be decades (after a wildfire), or even millions of years after a mass extinction (Permian, Triassic, cretaceous). The development of vegetation community in any ecosystem or habitat… Continue reading Ecological succession

Principles of ecosystem function?

Ecosystem functions through the input of energy mainly solar radiation. L. Lindeman has formulated principles about the relationship between trophic levels within a natural ecosystem. Principle 1: As the distance between the organisms of a given trophic level and the initial source of energy (trophic level one) increases, the probability of the organisms to depend… Continue reading Principles of ecosystem function?

What is an Ecosystem?

“Ecosystem” term was first coined by A.G. Tansely, in the year 1935. In simple terms, it is a community of living and non-living things that work together. The living and non-living things continuously exchange materials and energy between them. It forms the structural and functional unit of the biosphere (sphere of life). Ecosystem varies greatly… Continue reading What is an Ecosystem?

What is Environment?

What is Environment? The word Environment means ‘surroundings’ (environs). Therefore, the environment of an individual, object, or system includes all of the other entities – both living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic)-with which it is surrounded. In an environment. What are the different types of environment? Primarily, the environment can be categorised into two: Natural Environment:… Continue reading What is Environment?

Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC)–Transport Initiative for Asia(TIA)

Nationally Determined Contributions News: NITI Aayog will virtually launch the India Component of the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC)–Transport Initiative for Asia (TIA). Facts:  NDC Transport Initiative for Asia (NDC-TIA): The initiative aims to promote a comprehensive approach to decarbonize transport in India, Vietnam, and China over the period 2020-24. Supported by: It is supported by the International… Continue reading Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC)–Transport Initiative for Asia(TIA)

Sonneratia alba to be state mangrove tree in Maharashtra

News: Maharashtra is set to become the first state in the country to declare Sonneratia alba as a state mangrove tree species. Facts: Sonneratia alba or mangrove apple: It is an evergreen mangrove tree in the family Lythraceae. Distribution: It grows naturally in many tropical and subtropical areas from East Africa to the Indian subcontinent,… Continue reading Sonneratia alba to be state mangrove tree in Maharashtra

Global Initiative to reduce Land Degradation and Coral Reef program

News: Global Initiative to reduce Land Degradation and Coral Reef program has been launched at G20 Environment Ministers Meet. Facts: Global Initiative to reduce Land Degradation: It aims to strengthen the implementation of existing frameworks to prevent, halt and reverse land degradation within G20 member states and globally taking into account possible implications on the… Continue reading Global Initiative to reduce Land Degradation and Coral Reef program

China’s climate commitment: How is it significant?

News: China has announced significant climate change announcements at the virtual UN General Assembly in New York. Facts: What has China announced? China would become carbon net-zero by the year 2060. Net-zero: It is a state in which a country’s emissions are compensated by absorptions and removal of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. Absorption can… Continue reading China’s climate commitment: How is it significant?

My Ganga My Dolphin campaign

News: National Mission for Clean Ganga(NMCG), the Wildlife Institute of India, and the Forest Department has launched the My Ganga My Dolphin campaign on the occasion of Ganga River Dolphin Day. Facts: Aim: To promote and boost Dolphin based ecotourism in the country and to conduct Dolphin census. The program also includes dolphin safari in six… Continue reading My Ganga My Dolphin campaign

Ratification of seven (7) chemicals listed under Stockholm Convention on POPs

News: The Union Cabinet has approved the Ratification of seven (7) chemicals listed under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants(POPs). Facts: Seven POPs: The seven POPs prohibited from manufacturing, trading using, importing and exporting are: Chlordecone Hexabromobiphenyl Hexabromodiphenyl ether and Hepta Bromodiphenyl Ether Tetrabromodiphenyl ether and Pentabromodiphenyl ether Pentachlorobenzene Hexabromocyclododecane and Hexachlorobutadiene. Significance: The… Continue reading Ratification of seven (7) chemicals listed under Stockholm Convention on POPs

Fishing cat is now ambassador of Chilika Lake

News: The Chilika Development Authority(CDA) has designated the fishing cat as ambassador which is being called as an important step towards conservation of the vulnerable species. Facts: Fishing Cat: It is a medium-sized wildcat found in South and Southeast Asia.They are nocturnal and are an adept swimmer which enters water frequently to prey on fish… Continue reading Fishing cat is now ambassador of Chilika Lake

‘adopt-an-animal’ scheme of Nandankanan zoo

News: Nandankanan Zoological Park(NZP) which suffered a huge loss following its closure due to the COVID-19 pandemic has revived its innovative ‘Adopt-An-Animal’ programme to mobilise resources for animals. Facts: Nandankanan Zoological Park(NZP): It is located in Bhubaneswar, Odisha.Unlike other zoos in the country, Nandankanan is built right inside the forest and set in a completely… Continue reading ‘adopt-an-animal’ scheme of Nandankanan zoo

Graded Response Action Plan(GRAP)

News: Environment Pollution (Prevention & Control) Authority(EPCA) has directed Delhi and neighboring States to implement the Graded Response Action Plan(GRAP) from 15th October 2020. Facts: Graded Response Action Plan(GRAP): It is a set of stratified actions that are taken once the pollution level reaches a certain specified limit. When was it notified? The action plan… Continue reading Graded Response Action Plan(GRAP)

What is Aquaponic cultivation of plants?

News: The Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC), Mohali, has developed the technology for aquaponic cultivation of plants. Facts: Aquaponics: It is an emerging technique in which both fish as well as plants complement each other to sustain and grow.The fish waste provides organic food for plants and plants naturally filter the water, which… Continue reading What is Aquaponic cultivation of plants?

Vulture Conservation in India

News: National Board for Wildlife(NBWL) has approved an Action Plan for Vulture Conservation 2020-2025. Facts: Key Highlights of the Plan: Vulture Conservation centre: Uttar Pradesh, Tripura, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu will get a vulture conservation and breeding centre each. Vulture Safe zone: Establishment of at least one vulture-safe zone in each state for the conservation of the… Continue reading Vulture Conservation in India

Himalayan Brown Bear

News: The Zoological Survey of India has released a study titled ‘Adaptive spatial planning of protected area network for conserving the Himalayan brown bear’. Facts: Key Takeaways: About the study: The study was carried out in the western Himalayas.It has predicted a 73% decline of habitat of Himalayan Brown Bear by the year 2050. This decline will… Continue reading Himalayan Brown Bear

Climate financing adds to poor countries debt pile: Oxfam

News: Oxfam has released a report titled Climate finance shadow report 2020 – assessing progress towards the $100 billion commitment. Facts: Background: Developed countries had committed in 2009 to mobilize $100 billion every year by 2020 to help developing countries cut their carbon dioxide emissions and adapt to the effects of climate change. What is progress? Developed countries have… Continue reading Climate financing adds to poor countries debt pile: Oxfam

Project Dolphin

News: Prime Minister announced Project Dolphin on Independence Day Project Dolphin: The project is aimed at the conservation of the Gangetic Dolphins — both riverine as well as the oceanic dolphins in India. Significance: Aquatic life is an indicator of the health of river ecosystems. As the Gangetic dolphin is at the top of the… Continue reading Project Dolphin

About MSP (Minimum Support Price)

News: Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Bill, 2020 does not provide any safeguards for the continuance of the existing minimum support price (MSP)-based procurement regime. Facts: MSP is the minimum price paid to the farmers for procuring food crops. It is announced by the Government at the beginning of the sowing season.… Continue reading About MSP (Minimum Support Price)

Priority Sector Lending (PSL) guidelines

Reserve Bank of India (RBI) released revised priority sector lending (PSL) guidelines to augment funding for COVID-19 impacted companies. Facts: Aim: To align Priority Sector lending with emerging national priorities and bring sharper focus on inclusive development. Key Revised PSL Guidelines: Bank finance for start-ups (up to ₹50 crore), loans to farmers for installation of… Continue reading Priority Sector Lending (PSL) guidelines

Categorized as Economy Tagged

Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India

Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) It is a constitutional body established under Article 148 of the Constitution of India. Purpose: CAG audits all receipts and expenditure of the Government of India and the state governments, including those of bodies and authorities substantially financed by the government. Appointment: CAG is appointed by the President of India following a… Continue reading Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India

Departmentally Related Standing Committees (DRSCs)

Departmentally Related Standing Committees (DRSCs) News: In the current Lok Sabha, 17 Bills were referred to committees. Parliamentary Committees are established to study and deal with various matters that cannot be directly handled by the legislature due to their volume. Constitutional Provision: Indian Constitution mentions two kinds of parliamentary committees under Article 118 (1) of the… Continue reading Departmentally Related Standing Committees (DRSCs)

What is Carbon Tax?

Carbon Tax A carbon tax is a fee imposed on the burning of carbon-based fuels (coal, oil, gas). It is a way to have users of carbon fuels pay for the climate damage caused by releasing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. It works on the ‘the polluter pays’ principle. After economic reforms and carbon emissions… Continue reading What is Carbon Tax?

Draft Electricity Act (Amendment) Bill 2020

Draft Electricity Act (Amendment) Bill 2020 Bill has been framed to ensure that renewable energy tariffs are not changed by the states after the execution of contracts, and electricity regulatory commissions have more teeth to enforce power purchase agreements between projects and distribution companies (discom). It seeks privatisation of discoms (distribution companies) by way of… Continue reading Draft Electricity Act (Amendment) Bill 2020

Categorized as Economy Tagged

What is Industrial Revolution 4.0?

Industrial Revolution 4.0 Industry 4.0 refers to the fourth industrial revolution related to manufacturing and chain production. It is driven by breakthroughs in digital technologies, such as artificial intelligence, robotics, 3D printing, the IoT, Big Data etc. The Drivers of Change: Technological breakthroughs: New technological innovations such as Big Data, 3-D printing, artificial intelligence and… Continue reading What is Industrial Revolution 4.0?

Categorized as Economy Tagged

Freedom of press in India

What is Freedom of press? In India, freedom of the press has been treated as part of the freedom of speech and expression guaranteed by Article 19(1) (a) of the Constitution. The Indian constitution guarantees the “freedom of speech and expression” as a fundamental right of every citizen of India. Restrictions on the freedom of press: The… Continue reading Freedom of press in India

What is demographic dividend?

In News: India can achieve the goal of self-reliance (atma nirbharta) by enhancing the capability of youth. About Demographic Dividend: According to the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), demographic dividend means the economic growth potential that can result from shifts in a population’s age structure. The change in age structure is typically brought on by a decline… Continue reading What is demographic dividend?

Performance of the Parliament

Performance of the Parliament In news: The decision to drop “Question Hour” during the Monsoon Session of Parliament, evoked serious concerns about the democratic functioning of the institution. Brief Overview of the Indian Parliament: The Parliament is the legislative organ of the Union government. The Indian Parliament comprises of the President and the two Houses… Continue reading Performance of the Parliament

Basic Structure Doctrine

The “Basic Structure” doctrine is a legal doctrine made from judicial innovation specific to the Indian context. The doctrine prescribes that certain features of the constitution are essential for the functioning of the state. Such features are beyond the limits of the amending powers of the Parliament. The word “Basic Structure” is not mentioned in… Continue reading Basic Structure Doctrine

Base year of CPI-IW changed

The Labour and Employment Ministry on Thursday revised the base year of the Consumer Price Index for Industrial Workers (CPI-IW) from 2001 to 2016. Why the base year for the Consumer Price Index for Industrial Workers(CPI-IW) has been changed? Due to the changing consumption pattern, more weightage has been given to spending on health, education,… Continue reading Base year of CPI-IW changed

National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI)

It is a “Not for Profit” umbrella organization for operating retail payments and settlement systems in India, is an initiative of RBI and Indian Banks’ Association (IBA) under the provisions of the Payment and Settlement Systems Act, 2007, for creating a robust Payment & Settlement Infrastructure in India. It aims in bringing innovations in the… Continue reading National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI)

Can a state challenge/reject central laws? On issue of farm bills and CAA

Recently Punjab has denied implementing the Central Farm Laws in the state and has moved amendments to the legislations. Previously, on the Issue of CAA (Citizenship Amendment Act), several state governments like Kerala denied the implementation of the same in their states. Thus, the question arises, are states empowered to reject the central laws in… Continue reading Can a state challenge/reject central laws? On issue of farm bills and CAA

Farm bills 2020: Can Punjab challenge a central law?

Good evening dear reader. Here is our 7pm editorial Summary for today Farm bills and Punjab’s bills against them Punjab bills About farm bills and associated concerns Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation), bill 2020 Issues with Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Bill, 2020: Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement on… Continue reading Farm bills 2020: Can Punjab challenge a central law?