Managing Climate Change: A Strategy for India – Explained, pointwise

For 7PM Editorial Archives click HERE → Introduction Climate Change is a clear and present danger. The latest IPCC Assessment Report has warned that if nothing is done, global warming is likely to reach at least +2.8°C by the end of the century. Developing countries will be most seriously impacted by the impending disasters. Globally, there is a concerted… Continue reading Managing Climate Change: A Strategy for India – Explained, pointwise

Urban Governance Index 2020

Source : Click here News: The Urban Governance Index 2020 has been released. Facts: Published by: The index has been published by Praja Foundation, a Mumbai-based think tank. Purpose: The index ranks states to indicate where they stand in terms of real empowerment of grassroot democracy and local self government. Themes: The ranking is based on these main themes—… Continue reading Urban Governance Index 2020

Sea water pollution

Seawater Pollution: It is polluted mostly near the coast through the disposal of urban and industrial waste matters into the coastal waters. Causes Discharge of sewage, industrial effluents and toxic chemicals from urban areas and industrial establishment. Discharge of solid waste materials mainly plastics, microbeads, etc. According to UNEP, plastic accounts for 90% of all… Continue reading Sea water pollution

Water Pollution: Sources

Water Pollution refers to the deterioration of physical (such as color, odor, turbidity, taste, temperature), chemical (such as acidity, alkalinity, salinity, etc.), and biological (presence of bacteria, coliform MPN, algae, etc.) characteristics of water through natural and anthropogenic processes to such an extent that it becomes harmful to human beings, plants, and animal communities. SOURCES… Continue reading Water Pollution: Sources


Effects on Weather and Climate   Air pollution changes our planet’s climate Some types cause global warming to speed up. Others cause global warming to slow down by creating a temporary cooling effect for a few days or weeks. Depletion of Ozone Chlorofluorocarbons attacked and destroyed the ozone layer, producing holes that would allow dangerous… Continue reading EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION

Secondary Air Pollutants

 Secondary Air Pollutants  Smog is a kind of air pollution. Its types are: Classic smog results from large amounts of coal burning in an area caused by a mixture of smoke and Sulphur dioxide. Modern smog does not usually come from coal but from vehicular and industrial emissions that are acted on in the atmosphere… Continue reading Secondary Air Pollutants

Primary Air Pollutants

Primary Air pollutants POLLUTANTS SOURCES EFFECTS/IMPACTS Carbon Dioxide   Natural Sources: Exhalation through organisms. Forest fires and volcanoes, hot springs and geysers It is freed from carbonate rocks by dissolution in water and acids. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water, it occurs naturally in groundwater, rivers and lakes, in ice caps and glaciers and also… Continue reading Primary Air Pollutants


According to the WHO, air pollution is defined as limited to situations in which the outdoor ambient atmosphere contains materials in concentration, which are harmful to the environment and his/her surrounding environment. The nature, dimensions, and magnitude of air pollution depends on a variety of factors such as residence time of pollutants in the atmosphere,… Continue reading AIR POLLUTION


A pollutant is defined as any form of energy or matter or action that causes a state of disequilibrium from the state of equilibrium in any existing natural ecosystem. Pollutants are those unnecessary materials that are barely degradable and cause harmful effects to the environment. TYPES OF POLLUTANTS On the basis of source of genesis… Continue reading Pollutants


There is a circulation of chemical nutrients like oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, and water, etc. through the physical and biological world; between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere. These cycles are known as biogeochemical cycles. These cycles are natural pathways of the circulation of essential elements of life. For the survival of the major… Continue reading BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES