For 7PM Editorial Archives click HERE → Introduction Climate Change is a clear and present danger. The latest IPCC Assessment Report has warned that if nothing is done, global warming is likely to reach at least +2.8°C by the end of the century. Developing countries will be most seriously impacted by the impending disasters. Globally, there is a concerted… Continue reading Managing Climate Change: A Strategy for India – Explained, pointwise
Seawater Pollution: It is polluted mostly near the coast through the disposal of urban and industrial waste matters into the coastal waters. Causes Discharge of sewage, industrial effluents and toxic chemicals from urban areas and industrial establishment. Discharge of solid waste materials mainly plastics, microbeads, etc. According to UNEP, plastic accounts for 90% of all… Continue reading Sea water pollution
Water Pollution refers to the deterioration of physical (such as color, odor, turbidity, taste, temperature), chemical (such as acidity, alkalinity, salinity, etc.), and biological (presence of bacteria, coliform MPN, algae, etc.) characteristics of water through natural and anthropogenic processes to such an extent that it becomes harmful to human beings, plants, and animal communities. SOURCES… Continue reading Water Pollution: Sources
Effects on Weather and Climate Air pollution changes our planet’s climate Some types cause global warming to speed up. Others cause global warming to slow down by creating a temporary cooling effect for a few days or weeks. Depletion of Ozone Chlorofluorocarbons attacked and destroyed the ozone layer, producing holes that would allow dangerous… Continue reading EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION
Secondary Air Pollutants Smog is a kind of air pollution. Its types are: Classic smog results from large amounts of coal burning in an area caused by a mixture of smoke and Sulphur dioxide. Modern smog does not usually come from coal but from vehicular and industrial emissions that are acted on in the atmosphere… Continue reading Secondary Air Pollutants
Primary Air pollutants POLLUTANTS SOURCES EFFECTS/IMPACTS Carbon Dioxide Natural Sources: Exhalation through organisms. Forest fires and volcanoes, hot springs and geysers It is freed from carbonate rocks by dissolution in water and acids. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water, it occurs naturally in groundwater, rivers and lakes, in ice caps and glaciers and also… Continue reading Primary Air Pollutants
According to the WHO, air pollution is defined as limited to situations in which the outdoor ambient atmosphere contains materials in concentration, which are harmful to the environment and his/her surrounding environment. The nature, dimensions, and magnitude of air pollution depends on a variety of factors such as residence time of pollutants in the atmosphere,… Continue reading AIR POLLUTION
A pollutant is defined as any form of energy or matter or action that causes a state of disequilibrium from the state of equilibrium in any existing natural ecosystem. Pollutants are those unnecessary materials that are barely degradable and cause harmful effects to the environment. TYPES OF POLLUTANTS On the basis of source of genesis… Continue reading Pollutants
There is a circulation of chemical nutrients like oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, and water, etc. through the physical and biological world; between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere. These cycles are known as biogeochemical cycles. These cycles are natural pathways of the circulation of essential elements of life. For the survival of the major… Continue reading BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Ecological pyramids are the diagrammatic representations of the feeding relationship and energy transfers in the ecosystem. They are of three types: Pyramid of Numbers, Pyramid of Biomass and Pyramid of Energy. Pyramid of Numbers: It represents the relationship between number of individuals of primary producers and consumers at different trophic levels. It can be upright… Continue reading Ecological Pyramids
Food Chains A food chain describes how energy and nutrients move through an ecosystem. It basically shows who eats what in the ecosystem. Thus, the transfer of energy from the source in plants through a series of organisms by eating and being eaten constitutes food chains. At each transfer, a large proportion of energy is… Continue reading Food chains and Food webs
The term ecological niche was developed by Charles Elton. Ecological niche may be defined as ‘the functional role and position (micro-habitat) of species in its ecosystem, including what resources it uses, how and when it uses the resources, and how it interacts with other species. The ecosystem stability depends upon the diversity of the niche.… Continue reading Ecological niche
F.E. Clement postulated the concept of Vegetation/Ecological succession which is the process of change in the species structure of an ecological community over time. The time scale can be decades (after a wildfire), or even millions of years after a mass extinction (Permian, Triassic, cretaceous). The development of vegetation community in any ecosystem or habitat… Continue reading Ecological succession
Ecosystem functions through the input of energy mainly solar radiation. L. Lindeman has formulated principles about the relationship between trophic levels within a natural ecosystem. Principle 1: As the distance between the organisms of a given trophic level and the initial source of energy (trophic level one) increases, the probability of the organisms to depend… Continue reading Principles of ecosystem function?
“Ecosystem” term was first coined by A.G. Tansely, in the year 1935. In simple terms, it is a community of living and non-living things that work together. The living and non-living things continuously exchange materials and energy between them. It forms the structural and functional unit of the biosphere (sphere of life). Ecosystem varies greatly… Continue reading What is an Ecosystem?
What is Environment? The word Environment means ‘surroundings’ (environs). Therefore, the environment of an individual, object, or system includes all of the other entities – both living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic)-with which it is surrounded. In an environment. What are the different types of environment? Primarily, the environment can be categorised into two: Natural Environment:… Continue reading What is Environment?
Nationally Determined Contributions News: NITI Aayog will virtually launch the India Component of the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC)–Transport Initiative for Asia (TIA). Facts: NDC Transport Initiative for Asia (NDC-TIA): The initiative aims to promote a comprehensive approach to decarbonize transport in India, Vietnam, and China over the period 2020-24. Supported by: It is supported by the International… Continue reading Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC)–Transport Initiative for Asia(TIA)
News: Maharashtra is set to become the first state in the country to declare Sonneratia alba as a state mangrove tree species. Facts: Sonneratia alba or mangrove apple: It is an evergreen mangrove tree in the family Lythraceae. Distribution: It grows naturally in many tropical and subtropical areas from East Africa to the Indian subcontinent,… Continue reading Sonneratia alba to be state mangrove tree in Maharashtra
News: Global Initiative to reduce Land Degradation and Coral Reef program has been launched at G20 Environment Ministers Meet. Facts: Global Initiative to reduce Land Degradation: It aims to strengthen the implementation of existing frameworks to prevent, halt and reverse land degradation within G20 member states and globally taking into account possible implications on the… Continue reading Global Initiative to reduce Land Degradation and Coral Reef program
News: China has announced significant climate change announcements at the virtual UN General Assembly in New York. Facts: What has China announced? China would become carbon net-zero by the year 2060. Net-zero: It is a state in which a country’s emissions are compensated by absorptions and removal of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. Absorption can… Continue reading China’s climate commitment: How is it significant?
News: National Mission for Clean Ganga(NMCG), the Wildlife Institute of India, and the Forest Department has launched the My Ganga My Dolphin campaign on the occasion of Ganga River Dolphin Day. Facts: Aim: To promote and boost Dolphin based ecotourism in the country and to conduct Dolphin census. The program also includes dolphin safari in six… Continue reading My Ganga My Dolphin campaign
News: The Union Cabinet has approved the Ratification of seven (7) chemicals listed under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants(POPs). Facts: Seven POPs: The seven POPs prohibited from manufacturing, trading using, importing and exporting are: Chlordecone Hexabromobiphenyl Hexabromodiphenyl ether and Hepta Bromodiphenyl Ether Tetrabromodiphenyl ether and Pentabromodiphenyl ether Pentachlorobenzene Hexabromocyclododecane and Hexachlorobutadiene. Significance: The… Continue reading Ratification of seven (7) chemicals listed under Stockholm Convention on POPs
News: The Chilika Development Authority(CDA) has designated the fishing cat as ambassador which is being called as an important step towards conservation of the vulnerable species. Facts: Fishing Cat: It is a medium-sized wildcat found in South and Southeast Asia.They are nocturnal and are an adept swimmer which enters water frequently to prey on fish… Continue reading Fishing cat is now ambassador of Chilika Lake
News: Nandankanan Zoological Park(NZP) which suffered a huge loss following its closure due to the COVID-19 pandemic has revived its innovative ‘Adopt-An-Animal’ programme to mobilise resources for animals. Facts: Nandankanan Zoological Park(NZP): It is located in Bhubaneswar, Odisha.Unlike other zoos in the country, Nandankanan is built right inside the forest and set in a completely… Continue reading ‘adopt-an-animal’ scheme of Nandankanan zoo
News: Environment Pollution (Prevention & Control) Authority(EPCA) has directed Delhi and neighboring States to implement the Graded Response Action Plan(GRAP) from 15th October 2020. Facts: Graded Response Action Plan(GRAP): It is a set of stratified actions that are taken once the pollution level reaches a certain specified limit. When was it notified? The action plan… Continue reading Graded Response Action Plan(GRAP)
News: The Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC), Mohali, has developed the technology for aquaponic cultivation of plants. Facts: Aquaponics: It is an emerging technique in which both fish as well as plants complement each other to sustain and grow.The fish waste provides organic food for plants and plants naturally filter the water, which… Continue reading What is Aquaponic cultivation of plants?
News: National Board for Wildlife(NBWL) has approved an Action Plan for Vulture Conservation 2020-2025. Facts: Key Highlights of the Plan: Vulture Conservation centre: Uttar Pradesh, Tripura, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu will get a vulture conservation and breeding centre each. Vulture Safe zone: Establishment of at least one vulture-safe zone in each state for the conservation of the… Continue reading Vulture Conservation in India
News: The Zoological Survey of India has released a study titled ‘Adaptive spatial planning of protected area network for conserving the Himalayan brown bear’. Facts: Key Takeaways: About the study: The study was carried out in the western Himalayas.It has predicted a 73% decline of habitat of Himalayan Brown Bear by the year 2050. This decline will… Continue reading Himalayan Brown Bear
News: Oxfam has released a report titled Climate finance shadow report 2020 – assessing progress towards the $100 billion commitment. Facts: Background: Developed countries had committed in 2009 to mobilize $100 billion every year by 2020 to help developing countries cut their carbon dioxide emissions and adapt to the effects of climate change. What is progress? Developed countries have… Continue reading Climate financing adds to poor countries debt pile: Oxfam
News: Prime Minister announced Project Dolphin on Independence Day Project Dolphin: The project is aimed at the conservation of the Gangetic Dolphins — both riverine as well as the oceanic dolphins in India. Significance: Aquatic life is an indicator of the health of river ecosystems. As the Gangetic dolphin is at the top of the… Continue reading Project Dolphin
Carbon Tax A carbon tax is a fee imposed on the burning of carbon-based fuels (coal, oil, gas). It is a way to have users of carbon fuels pay for the climate damage caused by releasing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. It works on the ‘the polluter pays’ principle. After economic reforms and carbon emissions… Continue reading What is Carbon Tax?
Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 is an Act passed by the Parliament of India which came into force on 9th September 1972. It was enacted for the protection of plants, birds and animal species. It has six schedules that extend to the whole of India. Schedule I to V deals with animals, whereas Schedule VI regulates… Continue reading Wildlife Protection Act, 1972
The social cost of carbon (SCC), tries to add up all the monetary value of quantifiable benefits and costs of emitting one additional tonne of CO2. This value can then be used to weigh the benefits of reduced warming against the costs of cutting emissions. According to OECD, The Social Cost of Carbon is usually… Continue reading social cost of carbon (SCC)
Source: The Indian Express Syllabus: GS-3- Environment Context: Delhi’s air quality started to dip as the AQI touched very poor for the very first time this October. Why does air pollution rise in October each year? Air pollution in Delhi and the whole of the Indo Gangetic Plains is a complex phenomenon that is dependent on… Continue reading Reason for Delhi October pollution Level
Punjab Preservation of Sub-Soil Water Act, 2009 prohibits farmers from transplanting the sapling and sowing paddy seeds in nurseries, prior to the notified dates. Haryana too implemented a similar law in 2009. Prior to the enactment of this law, farmers would begin the sowing cycle in April for the crop which can typically take up… Continue reading Delhi Air pollution and Punjab act, 2009
India has come up with an Air Quality index India (AQI) to give an aggregate sense of the quality of air. The formulation of the index was a continuation of the initiatives under Swachh Bharat Mission envisioned by the present Prime Minister of India. There are six AQI categories, namely Good, Satisfactory, Moderately polluted, Poor,… Continue reading Air Quality index India (AQI)
In normal conditions, Temperature of air decreases with the increasing heights, till the inversion layer. Normally, Air temperature decreases at a rate of 3.5°F for every 1,000 feet (or roughly 6.4°C for every kilometre), in this condition air is called unstable due to it constant movement between cold and warm layers. Temperature inversion layers is… Continue reading Inversion of temperature and Delhi pollution
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