Chapter 5

  1. Legislature is not merely a law making body.
  2. Lawmaking is but one of the functions of the legislature
  3. The legislature also helps people in holding the representatives accountable.

Two Houses of Parliament

  1. The term ‘Parliament’ refers to the national legislative.
  2. The Parliament in India has two houses- Lok Sabha (Lower House or house of people) and Rajya Sabha (Upper house or council of states)
  3. When there are two houses of the legislature, it is called a bicameral legislature
  4. Constitution has given the States the option of establishing either a unicameral or bicameral At present only six States have a bicameral legislature.
  5. States Having bicameral legislative: (i) Andhra Pradesh (ii) Bihar (iii) Karnataka (iv) Maharashtra (v) Telangana (vi) Uttar Pradesh.

Rajya Sabha

  1. Upper house of parliament
  2. Rajya Sabha represents the States of India
  3. It is an indirectly elected body
  4. Members of the Rajya Sabha are elected for a term of six years. They can get re-elected.
  5. All members of the Rajya Sabha do not complete their terms at the same time. Every two years, one third members of the Rajya Sabha complete their term and elections are held for those one third seats only
  6. It is not subject to dissolution . that is why it is also called permanent house of parliament
  7. Members of Rajya Sabha are elected by Elected member of state legislative assembly
  8. Don’t Confuse :- Members of Rajya Sabha are elected by the Elected MLAs . Members of State legislative Council do not participate in Rajya Sabha Election.
  9. Apart from the elected members, Rajya Sabha also has twelve nominated members. The President nominates these member.

Lok Sabha

  1. Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies are directly elected by the people .
  2. One representative is elected from each constituency through universal adult suffrage where the value of vote of every individual would be equal to another.At present there are 543 constituencies. This number has not changed since 1971 census
  3. The Lok Sabha is elected for a period of five years. This is the maximum.

Functions of Parliament

  1. Law making
  2. Legislative Function: The Parliament enacts legislations for the country
  3. Control of Executive and ensuring its accountability
  4. Financial  Function:   If   the   Government of India proposes to introduce any new tax, it has to get the approval of the Lok Sabha
  5. Debating Function: The Parliament is the highest forum of debate in the country. There is no limitation on its power of discussion (Article 105- Parliamentary privilege)
  6. Constituent Function: The Parliament has the power of discussing and enacting changes to the Constitution (Article 368)…All constitutional amendments have to be approved by a special majority of both Houses
  7. Electoral functions:  The  Parliament  also performs some electoral functions. It elects the President and Vice President of India
  8. Judicial functions: The judicial functions of the Parliament include considering the proposals for removal of President, Vice-President and High Courts and Supreme Court

Power Comparison : Lok Sabha vs Rajya Sabha

Lok SabhaRajya Sabha
Special Powers of Lok Sabha

· The Rajya Sabha cannot initiate, reject or amend money bills.

· The Council of Ministers is responsible to the Lok Sabha and not Rajya Sabha

· Demand for grant is exclusive power of Lok Sabha

· No-Confidence  motion can be introduced in Only LokSabha

Special Powers of Rajya Sabha

· Article 312 :Parliament can create new All india service, if Rajya Sabha passes such resolution

· Article 249 :Parliament is empowerd to make laws on state list subjects when Rajya Sabha passes such resolution


Matters on Both Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha have equal power

  1. Introduction of ordinary bill & Constitutional amendment bill
  2. Impeachment of President
  3. Enlarge the jurisdiction of Supreme court

    How does Parliament makes Law?

    The basic function of any legislature is to make laws for its people.

    Types of Bill

    1. Government Bill  : A  bill proposed by a  minister  is described as Government Bill
    2. Private members bill : A bill proposed by member of parliament who is not minister
    3. Money bill : A money bill can be introduced only in Lok Sabha….. a money bill, the Rajya Sabha can either approve the bill or suggest changes but cannot reject If it takes no action within 14 days the bill is deemed to have been passed. Amendments to the bill, suggested by Rajya Sabha, may or may not be accepted by the Lok Sabha
    4. Non-Money bill:
    5. Ordinary bill:
    6. Constitutional Amendments bills: bill are proposed to amend constitution. Must be passed by special majority.
      As you know, a bill has to be passed by both Houses for enactment. If there is disagreement between the two Houses on the proposed bill, attempt is made to resolve it through Joint Session of Parliament.

Joint Sitting (Article 108)

·  Objective : To solve the deadlock

·  is called by president for ordinary bill & financial bill

·  presided by speaker.>Dy.Speaker>Dy Chairman(RS)

·  When a bill is referred to a joint sitting of both houses of the parliament , it has to       be passes by a simple majority of members present & Voting…

· The provision of joint sitting is applicable to ordinary bills or financial bills only and

· not to money bills or Constitutional amendment bills. (Article 108)..

· provision of joint sitting of the two houses of Parliament is derived from Australian      Constitution.

  1. When a bill is passed by both Houses, it is sent to the President for his assent. The assent of the President results in the enactment of a bill into a law

How does Parliament control the Executive?

  1. There are many ways in which the Parliament can control the But basic to them all is the power and freedom of the legislators as people’s representatives to work effectively and fearlessly (Article 105 Parliamentary privilege)
  2. The presiding officer of the legislature has the final powers in deciding matters of breach of privilege

Instruments of Parliamentary Control

  1. Deliberation and discussion
  2. Approval or Refusal of laws
  3. Financial control
  4. No confidence motion : most powerful weapon that enables the Parliament to ensure executive accountability.
  5. Question Hour, which is held every day during the sessions of Parliament, where Ministers have to respond to searching questions raised by the members
  6. Zero Hour where members are free to raise any matter that they think is important (though the ministers are not bound to reply)
  7. Approval and ratification of laws: Parliamentary control is also exercised through its power of ratification. A bill can become a law only with the approval of the parliament.
  8. Financial control: Preparation and presentation of budget for the approval of the legislature is constitutional obligation of the government.
    • The legislature may refuse to grant resources to the government
  9. Thus, the Parliament can effectively control the executive and ensure a more responsive government

What do the Committees of Parliament do?

  1. committees play a vital role not merely in law making, but also in the day-to-day business of the House
  2. Apart from standing committees, the Joint Parliamentary Committees have occupied a position of eminence in our Joint Parliamentary Committees (JPCs) can be set up for the purpose of discussing a particular bill
  3. The committee system has reduced the burden on the Many important bills have been referred to committees

How does the Parliament regulate itself?

  1. The presiding officer of the legislature is the final authority in matters of regulating the business of the legislature.
  2. Anti-defection law : An amendment to the Constitution was made (52nd amendment act) in This is known as anti-defection amendment. It has also been subsequently modified by the 91st amendment. The presiding officer of the House is the authority who takes final decisions on all such cases.
  3. If it is proved that a member has ‘defected’, then such member loses the membership of the House. Besides, such a person is also disqualified from holding any political office like ministership, etc.
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