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Climate Change

Climate Change [pdf]

‘Climate change’ represents a change in the long-term weather patterns. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) recently in its report stated that climate change is real and anthropogenic factors are its main cause.

8.1 Global Warming

 Global Warming is a gradual heating of the earth’s surface, oceans and atmosphere. The increase in temperature is often a result of the Greenhouse Effect caused by increased levels of gases like Carbon Dioxide, CFCs and other pollutants. As per IPCC report, the world is 1.2oC warmer than pre-industrial levels.

Greenhouse Effect involves following steps:

1.       High energy short wavelength solar radiation reaches the earth’s atmosphere.

2.       About 30% of the sun’s energy is reflected directly back into the space by the atmosphere, clouds and surface of the earth. The rest of the energy is absorbed into the earth’s system.

3.       The Earth re-emits energy in the form of infrared radiation back into the atmosphere, at wavelengths longer than incoming solar energy.

4.       Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere like Water Vapor, Carbon Dioxide, Methane, Nitrous Oxide, Fluorinated Gases like HFCs and SF6, Black Carbon and Brown Carbon, absorb much of the long wave energy (infrared radiation) emitted from the earth’s surface. Thus, these gases prevent the energy from escaping the earth’s surface, leading to warming of the atmosphere.

The term ‘Carbon Fertilization’ is often used in the context of Greenhouse Gas emissions, which means high rate of plant growth due to increased concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere.

A heat budget is the balance between incoming heat absorbed by the earth and the outgoing heat escaping it in the form of radiation. If the balance is disturbed, the earth would get progressively warmer or cooler with each passing year.

Human activities like deforestation, vehicular emissions have disturbed the heat budget. Greenhouse gas emissions have increased exponentially thus trapping more of the energy emitted by the earth due to greenhouse effect. This in turn has resulted in the earth’s temperature to increase leading to Global Warming.

Fighting global warming is a challenge as we do not have appropriate alternative technologies. Also, developing countries like India lacks funds to spend on climate-related research and technology development.

Black Carbon, commonly known as soot, is a solid particle or aerosol produced from incomplete combustion. It is released from biomass burning, cooking with solid fuels, vehicular emissions etc.

Black Carbon warms the earth by absorbing heat in the atmosphere and reducing albedo when deposited on snow. This is turn accelerates the melting of glaciers. Further, it also disrupts precipitation patterns.

Black Carbon is a Short-Lived Climate Pollutant (SLCP).

Brown Carbon is brown smoke released by the combustion of organic matter. It co-exists with Black Carbon when released in the atmosphere.Black Carbon is primarily released by high temperature combustion (diesel engines etc.) and Brown Carbon is mainly released by biomass combustion.

Fluorinated Gases like HFCs, PFCs, SF6 are emitted through a variety of industrial processes like aluminum and semi-conductor manufacturing, substitution for ozone depleting substances, electrical transmission equipment etc.

Fluorinated Gases have much longer lifetime compared to gases like Methane and Nitrous Oxide in the following order: SF6/PFCs>HFCs>Nitrous Oxide>CO2>CH4

Nitrous Oxide is naturally present in the atmosphere as a part of earth’s Nitrogen Cycle. Natural sources include bacteria breaking down nitrogen in soils while human induced factors include agriculture, transportation and industry (fertilizers industry and in the production of adipic acid used to make fibers like nylon).

Poultry industry also releases active nitrogen compounds into atmosphere.

Methane is emitted from natural sources like wetlands as well as human activities like agriculture (anaerobic conditions associated with rice cultivation), livestock, industry and wastes from home. It is much more harmful GHG than CO2.
Global Warming Potential (GWP) for a gas is a measure of the total energy that a gas absorbs over a period of time, compared to carbon dioxide. Gases with high GWP absorbs more energy than gases with lower GWP, thus contributing more to warming earth.

GHG

CO2

CH4

N2O

HFC – 23

HFC – 134a

SF6

GWP for 100 years

1

23

296

12000

1300

22200

Mankind’s over-exploitation/misuse of natural resources, fragmentation/loss of natural habitats, destruction of ecosystems, pollution and global climate change is leading us towards the “sixth mass extinction” at a much faster pace than before.

8.2 Ocean Acidification

Ocean Acidification is called the “evil twin of global warming” and “the other CO2 problem”. It refers to the ongoing decrease in the pH of the earth’s oceans, caused by the uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere.

Other contributors to ocean acidification are:

  1. Acid Rain can lower the pH of the oceans.
  2. Eutrophication leads to large plankton blooms and when these blooms collapse and sink to the bottom of the oceans, the subsequent respiration of bacteria decomposing the algae leads to a decrease in sea water oxygen and increase in CO2 (a decline in pH).

Impacts of ocean acidification are as follows:

  1. Increase in acidity depresses metabolic rates and immune response in some organisms.
  2. Survival of some animals having phytoplanktonic larvae will be adversely affected.
  3. Increased acidity leads to coral bleaching.
  4. As the pH of the ocean declines, the concentration of Carbonate ions decreases. This makes it more difficult for marine calcifying organisms like corals and some plankton to form biogenic calcium carbonate.
  5. Commercial fishing is threatened because acidification harms calcifying organisms which form the base of marine food webs.
  6. Cloud Seeding and formation of clouds will also be adversely affected.
Artificial Cloud Seeding is the process of spreading either dry or more commonly, silver iodide aerosols, into the upper parts of the clouds to stimulate the precipitation process and form rain.

8.3 Ozone Depletion

 Ozone is a natural gas and an allotrope of oxygen consisting of three atoms of oxygen bound together. Ozone is found in two different layers of atmosphere; Ozone in the troposphere is bad as it leads to smog formation while stratospheric ozone is good because it protects the life on earth from the harmful UV rays of the sun.

Impacts of Ozone Depletion:

  1. Due to Ozone depletion, more and more UV rays are able to reach Earth. These harmful rays can cause cataracts, skin cancer and impaired immune systems.
  2. UV rays can also damage sensitive crops, such as soyabeans and reduce crop yields. This in turn can impact food supplies.
  3. Marine phytoplanktons, which are at the base of the ocean food chain, are also under stress from UV radiation and their productivity is declining.

Sources of Ozone depletion include:

  1. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): These are used as refrigerants, propellants in aerosol sprays, foaming agents in plastic manufacturing, fire extinguisher agents, solvents for cleaning electronic components, for freezing foods etc.

 

  1. Nitrogen Oxides: The source of Nitrogen Oxides are mainly explosions of thermonuclear weapons, industrial emissions and agricultural fertilizers.

  1. Other substances like Bromine containing compounds called halons (used in fire extinguisher), HBFCs (Hydrobromofluorocarbons) and Methyl Bromide (used as pesticide/fumigant) also destroy Ozone. Each Bromine atom destroys hundred times more Ozone molecules than what a Chlorine atom does.
  2. Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs): These are nacreous clouds containing water, nitric acid and/or sulphuric acid. They are formed mainly during the event of polar vortex in winter and are more intense at the South Pole/Antarctica. PSCs are a source of Ozone depletion because they support chemical reactions that produce active Chlorine which catalyses Ozone depletion.
Ozone depletion is more over Antarctica than Arctic because the very low winter temperatures in the Antarctica Stratosphere cause Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) to form.

8.4 Climate Change Mitigation Strategies

 8.4.1 Carbon Capture and Storage

 Carbon Capture and Storage is the process of capturing waste carbon dioxide, transporting it to a storage site, and storing it where it will not enter the atmosphere. Captured CO2 is stored into

  1. Artificial Sinks: Depleted oil and gas reservoirs, coalbeds, deep saline aquifers and underground mines.
  2. Natural Sinks: Oceans, forests, soil etc.

8.4.2 Carbon Sink

A Carbon Sink is any natural or artificial reservoir that absorbs and stores some carbon-containing chemical compound for an indefinite period, thus lowering the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere.

Carbon Sinks include:

  1. Blue Carbon: It refers to coastal, aquatic and marine carbon sinks like tidal marshes, mangroves and seagrasses. These ecosystems are found all over the continent except Antarctica.
  2. Green Carbon: It refers to the Carbon removed by photosynthesis and stored in the plants and soil of natural ecosystems.
Blue Carbon Initiative is an international cooperation between Conservation International (CI), IUCN and the Intergovernmental Oceanic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO focused on mitigating climate change through the conservation and restoration of coastal marine ecosystems.

 8.4.3 Carbon Credit

 A Carbon Credit is a tradeable certificate or permit representing the right to emit one tonne of Carbon or Carbon Dioxide equivalent (tCO2e). The value of Carbon Credit varies according to market conditions. One Carbon Credit is equal to one tonne of Carbon Dioxide. The concept of Carbon Credit originated in the Kyoto Protocol of UNFCCC.

An organization which produces one tonne less of Carbon or Carbon Dioxide equivalent than the standard level of Carbon Emissions allowed for its outfit or activity earns a Carbon Credit. Developing Countries like India and China are emerging as the biggest sellers of Carbon Credit.

8.4.4 Carbon Offsetting

 Carbon Offsets are credits for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions made at another location, such as wind farms which create renewable energy and reduce the need for fossil fuel powered energy. Carbon Offsets are sold in metric tonnes of Carbon Dioxide equivalent.

8.4.5 Carbon Pricing

 A Carbon Price is the cost applied to carbon pollution to encourage polluters to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases they emit into the atmosphere. There are two major types of Carbon Pricing:

  1. Carbon Tax: It is a fee imposed on the burning of carbon-based fuels (coal, oil, gas etc.). Carbon Taxes intend to reduce Carbon Dioxide emissions by increasing the price of fossil fuels and reducing their demand. Carbon Tax is highly beneficial due to its predictability, easier to implement, understandable, lack of manipulation and option of rebates.
  2. Emission Trading System (ETS): ETS, also known as “cap and trade” system, caps the total level of Green House Gases (GHGs) and allows those industries with low emissions to sell their extra allowances to large emitters.
Other mechanisms to price the Carbon Emissions:

1.       Results Based Climate Finance (RBCF): It is a funding approach where payments are made after pre-defined outcomes related to managing climate change, such as emission reductions, are delivered and verified.
2.       Internal Carbon Pricing: It is a tool an organization uses to internally guide its decision-making process in relation to climate change impacts, risks and opportunities.

Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition (CPLC) is a voluntary initiative of 34 national and sub-national governments, over 163 businesses from a range of sectors and regions and over 82 strategic partners representing civil society organizations, NGOs and academic institutions etc.

The CPLC Secretariat is administered by the World Bank Group. From India, Delhi Metro Rail Corporation and Indian Railways are the government level partners.

Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) to Reduce Short Lived Climate Pollutants (like Methane, Black Carbons and HFCs) is a voluntary partnership of governments, intergovernmental organizations, businesses etc. committed to reduce short lived pollutants with over 120 state and non-state partners. It was initiated in 2012 by governments on Bangladesh, Canada, Ghana, Mexico, Sweden and USA (no India) along with UNEP.
BioCarbon Fund Initiative for Sustainable forest Landscapes (ISFL) is a multilateral fund, supported by donor governments and managed by the World Bank. It promotes and rewards reduced greenhouse gas emissions and increased carbon sequestration.
Global Climate Change Alliance (GCCA) is a European Union Initiative which helps mainly Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) and Least Developed Countries (LDCs) increase their resilience to climate change.

8.4.6 Geo-engineering


Climate geo-engineering refers to large scale schemes for intervention in the earth’s oceans, soils and the atmosphere with the aim of reducing the effects of climate change, usually temporarily.

Examples of Geo-engineering include:

  1. Copying a volcano: A volcanic eruption releases sulphur into the atmosphere, which in turn could block sun’s radiation and cool the earth.
  2. Shooting mirrors into space: This would deflect sunlight, thus reducing temperature.
  3. Seeding the sea with iron: It will stimulate the growth of phytoplankton as they prefer iron. Phytoplanktons will then pull CO2 out of the atmosphere through photosynthesis.
  4. Whitening the clouds: These clouds will then reflect the solar radiation and cool the earth.
  5. Cirrus Cloud Thinning and injection of Sulphate aerosol particles which are good reflectors of sunlight.
  6. Building fake trees: Artificial trees essentially would be a series of sticky, resin-covered filters that would convert captured CO2 to a carbonate called soda ash. Periodically, the soda ash would be washed off of the filters and collected for storage.

8.5 India and Climate Change

India’s per capita GHG emissions is less than one-third of the world’s per capita emissions and far below many developing and developed countries. As per 2nd India’s Biennial Update Report to UNFCCC, out of the total emissions, energy sector accounted for 73%, agriculture 16%, Industrial Processes and Product Use (IPPU) 8% and waste sector 3%. Also, about 12% of the emissions were offset by carbon sink of forestland, cropland and settlements.

India has proposed the following targets under Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC):

1.       Reduce emissions intensity of its GDP by 33 to 35% by 2030 from 2005 level.

2.       Achieve about 40% electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel-based energy resources by 2030.

3.       Create an additional carbon of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent through additional forest and tree cover by 2030.

INDC are non-binding national plans highlighting climate measures governments aims to implement in response to climate change and as a contribution to achieve the global targets set out in the Paris Agreement of UNFCCC.

Countries party to the UNFCCC were asked to publish their INDC at the 2013 United Nations Climate Change Conference held in Warsaw, Poland in 2013.

Some of the observed climate and weather changes in India include rising surface temperature, changing precipitation patterns and extreme weather events like heat waves, droughts and floods. Further, there has been an increase in Himalayan glacial melting leading to rise in sea level.

The ‘Hindukush Himalayan Assessment’ report has been released by Kathmandu based intergovernmental body, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD). As per the report, two third of Himalayan Glaciers, the world’s Third Pole”, could melt by 2030 if global emissions are not reduced.

8.5.1 National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC)

To counter the emerging threats from climate change, India released its National Action Plan to Combat Climate Change (NAPCC).

 8.5.1.1 National Solar Mission

Objective of the mission is to establish India as a global leader in solar energy by creating the policy conditions for its deployment across the country. Mission had set a target of deploying 20,000 MW of grid connected solar power by 2022, which has been revised to 1,00,000 MW in 2015.

The target will principally comprise of 40 GW Rooftop Solar Power Projects and 60 GW through Large and Medium Scale Grid Connected Solar Power Projects.

The mission adopted a 3-phase approach:

  1. Phase 1 (2012-13)
  2. Phase 2 (2013-17)
  3. Phase 3 (2017-22)

8.5.1.2 National Water Mission

 The Mission has the following goals:

  1. Increasing the water use efficiency by 20%.
  2. Promotion of basin level integrated water resources management.
  3. Creation of a comprehensive water data base in public domain and assessment of the impact of climate change on water resources.
  4. Special attention to vulnerable and over-exploited areas.
  5. Involving citizens and the state for water conservation and preservation.

8.5.1.3 National Mission for a Green India

 Objectives of the Mission include:

  1. Increased forest/tree cover on 5 million hectares (ha) of forest/non-forest lands and improved quality of forest cover on another 5 million hectares (ha) of non-forest/forest lands (a total of 10 million).
  2. Improved ecosystem services including biodiversity, hydrological services and carbon sequestration from the 10 million ha of forest/non-forest lands mentioned above.
  3. Increased forest-based livelihood income of about 3 million households living in and around forests.
  4. Enhance annual CO2 sequestration by 50 to 60 million tonnes in the year 2020.

8.5.1.4 National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA)

 The Mission aims at promoting sustainable agriculture through a series of adaptation measures focussing on ten key dimensions encompassing the Indian agriculture, mainly: ‘Improved crop seeds, livestock and fish cultures’, Water Use Efficiency’, ‘Pest Management’, ‘Improved Farm Practices’, ‘Nutrient Management’, ‘Agricultural Insurance’, ‘Credit Support’, ‘Markets’, ‘Access to Information’ and ‘Livelihood diversification’.

8.5.1.5 National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change

 Objectives of Mission include:

  1. Funding of high quality and focussed research into various aspects of climate change.
  2. Measuring socio-economic impacts of climate change including impact on health, demography, migration patterns and livelihoods of coastal communities.
  3. Supporting the establishment of dedicated climate change related academic units in universities and other academic and scientific research institutions in the country which would be networked.
  4. Establishing Climate Science Research Fund.

8.5.1.6 National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem 

  1. It is a multi-pronged, cross-cutting mission across various sectors. It contributes to the sustainable development of the country by enhancing the understanding of climate change, its likely impacts and adaptation actions required for the Himalayas- a region on which a significant proportion of India’s population depends for sustenance.
  2. It seeks to facilitate formulation of appropriate policy measures and time-bound action programmes to sustain ecological resilience and ensure the continued provisions of key ecosystem services in the Himalayas. It intends to evolve suitable management and policy measures for sustaining and safeguarding the Himalayan ecosystem along with developing capacities at the national level to continuously assess its health status.
  3. Recognizing the importance of scientific and technological inputs required for sustaining the fragile Himalayan Ecosystem, the Ministry of Science and Technology has been given the nodal responsibility of coordinating this mission. However, the mission involves valuable cooperation of Indian Himalayan States and the MoEFCC.

8.5.1.7 National Mission on Sustainable Habitat

The Mission seeks to promote sustainability of habitats through improvements in energy efficiency in buildings, urban planning, improved management of solid and liquid waste, modal shift towards public transport and conservation through appropriate changes in legal and regulatory framework.

The Mission will promote energy efficiency as an integral component of urban planning and urban renewal through three initiatives:

  1. The Energy Conservation Building Code
  2. Recycling of Material and Urban Waste Management
  3. Better Urban Planning and Modal Shift to Urban Transport

It aims to address the need to adapt to future climate change by improving the resilience of infrastructure, community-based disaster management and measures or improving the warning system for extreme weather events. Capacity building would be an important component of the mission.

8.5.1.8 National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency (NMEEE)

 NMEEE aims to strengthen the market for energy efficiency through implementation of innovative business models in the energy sector. NMEEE consists of four initiatives to enhance energy efficiency in energy intensive industries which are as follows:

8.5.2 Indian Network on Climate Change Assessment (INCCA)

 INCCA was launched in October 2009 by the MoEFCC in an effort to promote domestic research on climate change, and build on country’s climate change expertise. Reports prepared by the INCCA will form a part of India’s National Communication (NATCOM) to the UNFCCC.

India’s initial NATCOM to the UNFCCC has been initiated in 2002 funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) under its enabling activities programme through the United Nations Development Programme, New Delhi

INCCA-Second Assessment ‘Climate Change and India: A 4´4 Assessment’ examines the implications of the climate change scenario in 2030s using a regional climate model (PRECIS).

  1. 4 Regions were assessed: Western Ghats, Himalayan Region, Coastal India and North-East.
  2. 4 thrust areas were focussed upon: Agriculture, Water, Forests, Human Health.

Some of the possible impacts of climate change as analysed by the Assessment Report include warmer seasons, increased cyclonic disturbance, sea level rise and changed precipitation patterns.

8.5.3 Labelling Program for Appliances

 Standards and Labelling Programme for appliances was launched in 2006 and comparative star-based labelling has been introduced by Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE). These star ratings are given out of 5 and they provide information regarding energy efficiency of a product.

  1. Appliances requiring mandatory energy labelling: Frost-free refrigerator, Tubular Fluorescent Lamps, Room Air-Conditioners, Distribution Transformer, Colour TV, CST AC, Direct Cool Refrigerator and Electric Geyser.

Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) is a statutory body set up under the Energy Conservation Act, 2001.
It assists the government in developing policies and strategies with a thrust on self-regulation and market principles, within the overall framework of the Energy Conservation Act with the primary objective of reducing the energy intensity of the Indian economy.

8.5.4 Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC)

 An ECBC was launched in May 2007, which addresses the design of new, large commercial buildings to optimize the buildings’ energy demand based on their location in different climatic zones. Compliance with the Code has been incorporated into the mandatory Environmental Impact Assessment requirements for large buildings. Building intended for private residential purposes only are not covered under the Code.

In March 2007, the conduct of energy audit was made mandatory in large energy-consuming units in nine industrial sectors.

Ministry of Power launched ECO Niwas Samhita 2018, an Energy Conservation Building Code for Residential Buildings (ECBC-R). However, it addresses only energy efficiency of buildings. Water and other aspects are not covered under it.
Other initiatives that promote energy efficiency in buildings:

1.       LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) is a green building certification programme worldwide developed by non-profit US Green Building Council (USGBC).

2.       GRIHA (Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment) is a national rating system for Green Buildings developed by TERI.

3.       Indian Green Building Council (IGBC), a part of Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), developed the Green Building Rating System.

a.        IGBC also organizes the annual Green Building Congress, its flagship event on Green Buildings.

4.       BEE along with Alliance for an Energy Efficient Economy (AEEE) recently released the ‘State Energy Efficiency Index 2019’. It tracks the progress of energy efficiency initiatives in States and UTs based on 97 significant indicators.

a.        BEE launched UNNATEE (Unlocking National Energy Efficiency Potential) in 2019 for accelerating energy efficiency in India.

5.       India Cooling Action Plan (ICAP) was launched by MoEFCC.

a.        ICAP aims at reducing cooling demand across sectors by 20% to 25% by 2037-38 and cooling energy requirements by 25% to 40% within the same time period.

8.5.5 Electric Vehicles

 To promote Electric Vehicles in India, Government launched the following initiatives:

  1. India’s Electric Vehicle Mission 2030 aims to have all-electric fleet of vehicles by 2030.
  2. National Electric Mobility Mission:
    1. It aims to have national fuel security by promoting hybrid and electric vehicles in the country.
    2. It targets 6-7 million sales of hybrid and electric vehicles year on year from 2020 onwards.
  3. FAME India (Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (hybrid &) Electric Vehicles in India) Scheme:
    1. It is a part of National Electric Mobility Mission Plan and has been launched by Department of Heavy Industries, the Ministry of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises.
    2. The Scheme has four focus areas: technology development, demand creation, pilot projects and charging infrastructure.
  4. Automotive Mission Plan 2026 aims at bringing Indian Automotive Industry among the top three of the worlds in engineering, manufacturing and exports of vehicles and components, growing in value to over 12% of India’s GDP and generating additional 65 million jobs.
Recently, Government of India launched FAME India Phase II. It will be implemented over a period of 3 years from 2019-20 to 2021-22. The main objective of the scheme is to encourage faster adoption of electric and hybrid vehicle by the way of market creation and indigenization. FAME Phase II aims to achieve the target of more than 30% electric vehicles by 2030.

Government released charging infrastructure guidelines for electric vehicles. Its major provisions are:

1.       Promoting private participation in charging infrastructure.

2.       No license will be required for setting up a public charging station by an individual or entity.

3.       It will be rolled out in two phases:

a.     Phase I (1-3 years) will cover all megacities with population above forty lakhs and the associated expressways and highways.

b.    Phase II (3-5 years) will cover state and UTs.

4.       Central or State Electricity Regulatory Commissions will determine the tariff for supply of electricity to the public charging stations.

5.       Charging stations have been allowed to source electricity from any power generation company through open access.

8.5.6 National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA)

 The ICAR has launched NICRA during 2010-11 with an outlay of 350 crores. The initiative will primarily enhance the resilience of Indian Agriculture covering crops, livestock and fisheries.

The initiative will involve strategic research on adaptation and mitigation. Accordingly, sponsored and critical research grants will be provided to fill the critical research gaps.

Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmer Rights Act (PPV&FR) 2001 aims at an effective system for IPR protection of plants varieties and rights of breeders, including farmers. The protection period is 15 years and 18 years in case of trees and vines.

Objectives of the Act are:

1.       To recognize and protect the rights of farmers in respect of the contributions made by them at any time in conserving, improving and making available plant genetic resources for the development of new plant varieties.

2.       To accelerate agricultural development in the country, protect plants breeders’ rights, stimulate investment for research and development in both public and private sector or the development of new plant varieties.

3.       Facilitate the growth of seed industry in the country.

A farmer is entitled to save, use, sow, resow, exchange, share or sell his farm produce including seed or variety protected under PPV&FR Act 2001 without the brand name.

Zero Budget Natural Farming (ZBNF) is a natural farming developed by Subhash Palekar.  It is a type of farming in which there is no use of chemical pesticides and agriculture is carried out in an eco-friendly manner. This helps in restoring soil fertility and organic matter. ZBNF reduces the cost of production down to zero due to utilization of all the natural resources available in and around the crops.

The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, also known as Seed Treaty, aims at guaranteeing food security through conservation, exchange and sustainable use of world’s plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. It was adopted by the 31st session of the Conference of Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the UN in 2001.
Climate-Smart Agriculture involves farming practices that improve farm productivity and profitability, help farmers to adapt to the negative effects of climate change and mitigate climate change effects.

Global Alliance for Climate Smart Agriculture (GACSA) was launched in September 2014 as a multi-stakeholder platform on Climate Smart Agriculture. India though a signatory of the alliance was not involved in its creation.

Examples of Climate Smart Agriculture include:

1.       Increasing the organic content of soil through conservation tillage.

2.       Engaging in Conservation Agriculture like adopting minimum tillage, using crop residues to cover soil surface and adopting crop rotations.

3.       Following a landscape approach in agriculture, like integrated planning of land.

Adaptation for Smallholder Agriculture Program is administered by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). The Program aims to channel climate and environmental finance to small-holder farmers, scale up climate change adaptation in rural development programmes and mainstream climate adaptation into IFAD’s work.
Svalbard Global Seed Vault located in Norway is a state of art seed protection facility, famously called ‘Doomsday’ or the ‘Apocalypse Seed Bank’ or the ‘Noah’s Ark for Seeds’.

1.       India’s Seed Vault is located at Chang La, Ladakh. It has been built jointly by Defense Institute of High-Altitude Research (DIHAR) and the National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR) under the aegis of DRDO.

8.5.7 National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change (NAFCC)

NAFCC is a Central Sector Scheme set up in 2015-16 with the aim to promote adaptation activities which mitigate the adverse effects of climate change.

The projects related to adaptation in sectors like agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry, tourism etc. are eligible for funding under NAFCC.

National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) is the implementing agency for the scheme.

The Clean Energy Cess (or Coal Cess) was abolished in 2017 with the introduction of Goods and Service Tax. A new Cess on coal production, called the GST Compensation Cess of Rs 400 per tonne is put in place. The Cess is used to raise revenues for the National Clean Energy Fund.

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