Electrical Engineering Optional-Syllabus
1. Circuits—Theory :
Circuit components; network graphs; KCL, KVL; Circuit analysis methods : nodal analysis, meshanalysis; basic network theorems and applications; transient analysis : RL, RC and RLC circuits;sinusoidal steady state analysis; resonant circuits; coupled circuits; balanced 3-phase circuits.
2. Signals and Systems :
Representation of continuous-time and discrete-time signals and systems; LTI systems;
convolution; impulse response; time-domain analysis of LTI systems based on convolution and
differential/difference equations. Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform, Transfer
function. Sampling and recovery of signals DFT, FFT Processing of analog signals through
3. E.M. Theory :
Maxwell’s equations, wave propagation in bounded media. Boundary conditions, reflection and
refraction of plane waves. Transmission lines : travelling and standing waves, impedance
matching, Smith chart.
4. Analog Electronics :
Characteristics and equivalent circuits (large and small-signal) of Diode, BJT, JFET and MOSFET.
Diode circuits : Clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability. FET amplifiers. Current
mirror; Amplifiers : single and multi-stage, differential, operational feedback and power. Analysis
of amplifiers; frequency-response of amplifiers. OPAMP circuits. Filters; sinusoidal oscillators :
criterion for oscillation; single-transistor and OPAMP configurations. Function generators and
wave-shaping circuits. Linear and switching power supplies.
5. Digital Electronics :
Boolean algebra; minimisation of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL,
MOS, CMOS). Combinational circuits : arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers and
decoders. Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers. Comparators,
timers, multivibrators. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs. Semiconductor memories. Logic
implementation using programmable devices (ROM, PLA, FPGA).
6. Energy Conversion :
Principles of electromechanical energy conversion : Torque and emf in rotating machines. DC
machines : characteristics and performance analysis; starting and speed control of motors.
Transformers : principles of operation and analysis; regulation, efficiency; 3-phase transformers.
3-phase induction machines and synchronous machines : characteristics and performance
analysis; speed control.
7. Power Electronics and Electric Drives :
Semi-conductor power devices : diode, transistor, thyristor, triac, GTO and MOSFET-static
characteristics and principles of operation; triggering circuits; phase control rectifiers; bridge
converters : fully-controlled and half-controlled; principles of thyristor choppers and inverters;
DC-DC converters; Switch mode inverter; basic concepts of speed control of dc and ac motor
drives applications of variable-speed drives.
8. Analog Communication :
Random variables : continuous, discrete; probability, probability functions. Statistical averages;
probability models; Random signals and noise : white noise, noise equivalent bandwidth; signal
transmission with noise; signal to noise ratio. Linear CW modulation : Amplitude modulation :
DSB, DSB-SC and SSB. Modulators and Demodulators; Phase and Frequency modulation : PM &
FM signals; narrows band FM; generation & detection of FM and PM, Deemphasis, Preemphasis.
CW modulation system : Superhetrodyne receivers, AM receivers, communication receivers, FM
receivers, phase locked loop, SSB receiver Signal to noise ratio calculation or AM and FM
1. Control Systems :
Elements of control systems; block-diagram representations; open-loop & closed-loop systems;
principles and applications of feed-back. Control system components. LTI systems : time-domain
and transform-domain analysis. Stability : Routh Hurwitz criterion, root-loci, Bode-plots and
polor plots, Nyquist’s criterion; Design of lead-lad compensators. Proportional, PI, PID controllers.
State-variable representation and analysis of control systems.
2. Microprocessors and Microcomputers :
PC organisation; CPU, instruction set, register settiming diagram, programming, interrupts,
memory interfacing, I/O interfacing, programmable peripheral devices.
3. Measurement and Instrumentation :
Error analysis; measurement of current voltage, power, energy, power-factor, resistance,
inductance, capacitance and frequency; bridge measurements. Signal conditioning circuit;
Electronic measuring instruments : multimeter, CRO, digital voltmeter, frequency counter,
Q-meter, spectrum-analyser, distoration-meter. Transducers : thermocouple, thermistor, LVDT,
strain-guage, piezo-electric crystal.
4. Power Systems: Analysis and Control :
Steady-state performance of overhead transmission lines and cables; principles of active and
reactive power transfer and distribution; per-unit quantities; bus admittance and impedance
matrices; load flow; voltage control and power factor correction; economic operation;
symmetrical components, analysis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults. Concepts of system
stability : swing curves and equal area criterion. Static VAR system. Basic concepts of HVDC
5. Power System Protection :
Principles of overcurrent, differential and distance protection. Concept of solid state relays.
Circuit brakers. Computer aided protection : introduction; line, bus, generator, transformer
protection; numeric relays and application of DSP to protection.
6. Digital Communication :
Pulse code modulation (PCM), defferential pulse code modulation (DPCM), delta modulation
(DM), Digital modulation and demodulation schemes : amplitude, phase and frequency keying
schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK). Error control coding : error detection and correction, linear block codes,
convolation codes. Information measure and source coding. Data networks, 7-layer architecture.