Explained | A new global biodiversity framework

Source: The post is based on the articleExplained | A new global biodiversity frameworkpublished in The Hindu on 21st December 2022

What is the News?

The 15th Conference of Parties(COP15) to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity(CBD) adopted the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework(GBF).

What is the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework(GBF)?

Aim: To address biodiversity loss, restore ecosystems and protect indigenous rights.

Focus of GBF: 

GBF goals and targets do not prohibit the use of biodiversity, but call for sustainable use and a sharing of benefits from genetic resources.

It emphasizes respect for the rights of indigenous communities that traditionally protect forests and biodiversity, and their involvement in conservation efforts.It advocates similar roles for women and local communities.

Agricultural practices also find a strong focus. Besides emphasizing sustainable practices in agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries and forestry, the agreement calls upon members to adopt biodiversity-supporting methods such as agroecology and sustainable intensification. 

What are the key targets under GBF?

GBF features 23 targets to achieve by 2030, including: a) Restoration of 30% of terrestrial and marine ecosystems, b) Reduce to near zero the loss of areas of high biodiversity importance and high ecological integrity, c) Halving global food waste

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Monitoring of the Framework: GBF has specific provisions on implementing and monitoring. Member nations need to submit a revised and updated national biodiversity strategy and action plan in the conference to be held in 2024. Further, the parties to the CBD should submit national reports in 2026 and 2029 to help prepare global reviews. High level discussions on the progress reviews should be held in 2024 and 2026.

Funding: By 2030, the GBF hopes to see at least $200 billion raised per year from all sources — domestic, international, public and private — towards implementation of the national action plans. 

– In terms of international funding, developing countries should get at least $20 billion a year by 2025 and at least $30 billion by 2030 through contributions from developed countries. 

– The Global Environment Facility (GEF) has been asked to establish in 2023, and until 2030, a Special Trust Fund to support the implementation of the GBF. 

What is the significance of this framework on biodiversity?

Needed to prevent extinction of species: According to the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), a quarter of the plants and animals it assessed for the 2019 Global Biodiversity Outlook are threatened which translates to about one million species facing extinction. 

Aligned with SDG Goals: GBF is aligned with UN Sustainable Development Goals, three of which directly deal with the environment and thus with biodiversity: Goal 13 on climate action, Goal 14 on life below water and Goal 15 on life on land.

What is the major challenge to protecting biodiversity?

The major challenge to protecting and expanding biodiversity conservation is the use of GDP as the chief determinant of development. 

This is because GDP is based on a faulty application of economics that excludes “depreciation of assets” like nature which is degraded by relentless extraction of resources. 

The UN’s effort to measure wealth more broadly through its “Inclusive Wealth” (IW) report showed in 2018 that although 135 countries did better on inclusive wealth in 2014 compared to 1990, the global GDP growth rate considerably outpaced IW: an average of 1.8% per year for IW compared to 3.4% for GDP per year during the period.

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