Explained: Managing type 1 diabetes

What is the News?

Indian Council of Medical Research (IMCR) has released guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment, and management for type-1 diabetes. This is the first time the ICMR has issued guidelines specifically for type 1 diabetes.

Note: India is considered as the diabetes capital of the world.

What is Type-1 Diabetes?
Type-1 Diabetes
Source: Indian Express

Type 1 diabetes is a condition where the pancreas completely stops producing insulin, the hormone responsible for controlling the level of glucose in the blood by increasing or decreasing absorption to the liver, fat and other cells of the body.

Difference between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes: In Type 2 diabetes, the body produces some insulin which can be managed using various pills. On the other hand, in type 1 diabetes, the body produces zero insulin and if the person stops taking their insulin, they die within weeks. 

Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes
Source: OhioHealth

Vulnerable Group: Type 1 diabetes is predominantly diagnosed in children and adolescents.

Cases: There are over 10 lakh children and adolescents living with type 1 diabetes in the world, with India accounting for the highest number.

Note: Only 2% of all hospital cases of diabetes in India are type 1.

Risk Factors: The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown, but it is thought to be an autoimmune condition where the body’s immune system destroys the islets cells on the pancreas that produce insulin.

– However, genetic factors play a role in determining whether a person will get type-1 diabetes. 

– The presence of certain genes is also strongly associated with the disease. For example, the prevalence of genes called DR3-DQ2 and DR4-DQ8 is 30-40% in patients with type 1 diabetes as compared to 2.4% in the general population.

Treatment: People with type I diabetes are insulin-dependent which means they must take artificial insulin daily to stay alive.

However, researchers are now looking for a cure and there are some encouraging results from stem cell therapy to increase islets cells.

Source: The post is based on the article “Explained: Managing type 1 diabetes published in Indian Express on 14th June 2022.

Print Friendly and PDF