Factly :-News Articles For UPSC Prelims | 13 Apr, 2021

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Darbar Move Tradition of Jammu and Kashmir?

What is the News?

Darbar move tradition in Jammu and Kashmir discontinues from this year. The move aims to take only sensitive records from Jammu to Srinagar, starting this summer. This is a shift from previous years. Earlier, the entire administration and records would get shifted.

About Darbar Move Tradition:

  • Darbar move is the name for the bi-annual shift of the secretariat and all other government offices between Jammu and Kashmir. In Summers, shifting was to take place from Jammu to Srinagar and vice versa in winters. This is done as J&K has two capitals: Kashmir during summer and Jammu during winter.

Who started the Darbar move tradition?

  • Origin: IN 1872, the Dogra King Maharaja Ranbir Singh, started the Darbar move practice.
  • The practice aims to take the administration to the doorstep of the people of Kashmir. The move also enabled a greater interaction and bonding among the people of Jammu, Kashmir, and Ladakh.

Criticisms of the Darbar move:

  • High Cost: The Darbar move draws criticism as the government spends nearly Rs. 200 crore on this exercise every year. The amount is significant as the government does not have enough funds even to pay salary to its employees.
  • Impacts Administration: The move impacts the administration as it nurtures inefficiency and leads to a lack of governance.
  • Movement of Sensitive Documents: The documents and resources are put to  risk in the process of their transportation

Jammu and Kashmir(J&K) High Court on Darbar move:

  1. Firstly, the Jammu & Kashmir High Court observed that there was no legal justification or constitutional basis for the Darbar Move tradition.
  2. Secondly, the court said that the practice resulted in wastage of tremendous amounts of time, effort, and energy. Further, the court also held the move as inefficient and unnecessary activity.
  3. Therefore, the court recommended that instead of the move, the resources and time can get utilized towards the welfare and development of the people. Also, the amount can address issues like food shortage, unemployment, and healthcare.

Source: Indian Express

Union Minister to launch “Aahaar Kranti Mission”

What is the News?

 The Union Minister for Science and Technology will launch a mission called `Aahaar Kranti’.

About Aahaar Kranti Mission:

  • Vijnana Bharati (Vibha) and the Global Indian Scientists’ and Technocrats’ Forum (GIST) will launch Aahaar Kranti Mission.
  • Aim: The mission will aim to spread the message of the need for a nutritionally balanced diet. Further, it will highlight the importance of being accessible to all local fruits and vegetables.

Key Features of the Mission:

  • Components: The mission will work on multiple dimensions simultaneously. It will seek to promote:
    1. Better awareness
    2. Better nutrition and
    3. Also, better agriculture
  • These messages will be imparted through the curriculum in the form of `what’s and `why’s of nutrition, or through the forms of games.
  • The content will be available both online and offline and in all vernacular languages besides English and Hindi. It will aim to reach out to as many as possible.
  • The mission will especially focus on training teachers. Who in turn will pass on the message to the students and through them to their families and finally the society at large.
    • Such a strategy was adopted for the eradication of Polio, and it turned out to be a grand success.
  • The mission will also utilize India’s rich knowledge of Ayurveda-based nutrition to practice.
Aim of Aahaar Kranti Mission
  • The mission will address the current situation of hunger in abundance. It will work to arouse the people to the values of India’s traditional diet, local fruits and vegetables, and a balanced diet.
    • Studies estimate that India produces as much as two times the amount of calories that it consumes. However, many in the country are still malnourished.
  • Further, the United Nations also declared 2021 as the International Year of Fruits and Vegetables. Hence, the Aahaar Kranti Mission vibes very well with this.
  • Moreover, UN sustainable goal # 3 also emphasizes human well-being. It reads, “Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages.”

Source: PIB

ICMR’s International Symposium on “One Health” in India

What is the News?

 Union Minister for Health and Family Welfare chairs ICMR’s International Symposium for one health in India.

About ICMR’s International Symposium

  • ICMR’s Indian Journal of Medical Research: The journal discusses the One Health approach.
  • The title of this symposium is ‘One Health in India: Research informing biosafety, preparedness, and response’.
  • Committee on Eco-Health Initiatives: A high-level steering committee for Eco-Health Initiatives in India was announced. This committee will have its secretariat hosted at the ICMR. It will be supported by the upcoming National Institute of One Health which is planned to be set up in Nagpur.

About One Health:

  • It is an approach that recognizes that the health of humans, animals, and ecosystems are interconnected.
  • Hence, it involves applying a coordinated and multidisciplinary approach at the local, regional, national and global levels. It will address potential or existing risks that originate at the animal-human ecosystems interface.

Importance of Approach:

  • The approach is important because many times the same microbes infect animals and humans as they share the ecosystems they live in. Hence, efforts by just one sector cannot prevent or eliminate the infection.
  • Examples:
    • Rabies in humans can be effectively prevented only by targeting the animal source of the virus (for example, by vaccinating dogs).
    • Information on influenza viruses circulating in animals is crucial to the selection of viruses for human vaccines for potential influenza pandemics.

Application areas of One Health

This approach is particularly relevant for:

  • Food safety
  • Control of zoonoses (diseases that can spread between animals and humans, such as flu, rabies, and Rift Valley Fever)
  • Combating antibiotic resistance (when bacteria change after exposure to antibiotics and become more difficult to treat).

Examples of Approach:

Source: PIB

Centre Extends Ceasefire Agreements with Naga groups

What is the News?

The Central Government extends the ceasefire agreement with three insurgent Naga groups of Nagaland for one more year i.e. till April 2022.

Which are those three insurgent groups of Nagaland? The ceasefire agreement is in operation between the Centre and the three insurgent groups of Nagaland namely:

  • National Socialist Council of Nagaland-NK (NSCN/NK)
  • National Socialist Council of Nagaland-Reformation (NSCN/R) and
  • National Socialist Council of Nagaland-K-Khango (NSCN/K-Khango).

National Socialist Council of Nagaland — Isak-Muivah(NSCN-IM):

  • The Peace negotiations with NSCN-IM have been on since 1997 when the group signed the ceasefire agreement with the central government for the first time.
  • In 2015, the group signed a Framework Agreement in the presence of the Prime Minister to find a permanent solution.
  • The agreement recognised the uniqueness of the Naga history and culture of Nagaland.
  • However, the talks with the NSCN-IM seem to be heading nowhere presently. The group has been insisting on a separate Naga flag and constitution.

National Socialist Council of Nagaland—Khaplang(NSCN-K)

  • The NSCN-K had signed a ceasefire agreement with the Centre in 2001. However,  it unilaterally abrogated it in 2015 when the group attacked a military convoy in Manipur in 2015 killing 18 soldiers.
  • In December 2020, the NSCN-K had again announced a ceasefire and said that the outfit has contacted the central government to initiate a peace dialogue.

Source: PIB

Report on Racial Discrimination against Northeast People

What is the News? Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) releases a study on racial discrimination and hate crimes against people from the northeastern States.

About the study:

  • Conducted by: The Centre for Criminology and Victimology at the National Law University(NLU), Delhi conducted the study, under the aegis of the ICSSR.
  • Purpose: The study analysed the prevalence of hate crimes against the people of the North East region in six metropolitan cities — Mumbai, Pune, Delhi, Chennai, Bengaluru and Hyderabad.

Key Findings of the Study:

  • Racial Discrimination: Around 78% of the interviewed people from the region believes that physical appearance was the most important reason for prejudice.
    • Mumbai (44.7%) reported the highest number of racial hatred incidents against the North-East People.
    • Further, the acts of racial discrimination, against people from the North-East Region, increased after the Covid-19 outbreak in 2020.
  • Offensive and abusive language were most common across all six cities. Mumbai recorded the highest offensive and abusive language-related crime(74%). It was followed by Chennai (72%), Pune (67.3%), Delhi (64%), Hyderabad (48.7%) and Bengaluru (43.3%).
  • The incidence of non-reporting of the incidents was 32.3%. Further, as many as 34% of persons faced a common issue of refusal to file FIR by the police.
  • Impact: More than 60% said their studies and work hampered seriously by such experiences.
Suggestions against Racial Discrimination against Northeast People:

M.P. Bezbaruah Committee was set up by the Ministry of Home Affairs. It looked into the concerns of the citizens from the North Eastern States. Thus, It suggested remedial measures including legal measures that government could take. The important recommendations are:

  • Policing: It recommended amendments to the IPC by creating new offences under Section 153C and 509A. Sections will deal with comments, gestures and acts intended to insult a member of a particular racial group.
  • New law: Either a new law should be promulgated or the offences should be made ‘cognizable’ and ‘non-bailable’. It should have imprisonment extendable up to three years or five years with a fine.
  • Social media: Government should set up dedicated Facebook, WhatsApp, helpline and email support for reaching out to North-Eastern people living in the rest of India.
  • Dedicated Public Prosecutors: Set up a dedicated panel of lawyers to fight cases for North Eastern victims.50% of these lawyers should be women.
  • Nodal Police Stations: Nodal police stations for North Easterners. So that the police officer can immediately register FIR instead of asking the victim to go to other stations.
  • Fast-track courts: The Committee suggests the creation of fast-track courts for handling the cases relating to the North East people.

Note: The Supreme Court in Karma Dorji & Others vs Union of India & Others (2014) has also made several recommendations for the prevention and monitoring of racial hatred and violence. However, not much seems to have been done.

Source: The Hindu

NSO Releases “Women and Men in India Report, 2020”

What is the News?

The National Statistical Office released the Women and Men in India report, 2020.

About Women and Men in India Report, 2020:

  • National Statistical Office produces the Women and Men in India Report, 2020 annually. This is the 22nd issue in its series.
  • Purpose: The report consolidates the crucial socio-economic indicators that portray gender situations in the country.

Key Facts from the Report:

Population and Related Statistics:

  • India’s projected population in 2021 is 136.13 Crore with a 48.65% female population.
  • The projected average annual exponential growth rate of the population declined from 1.63 in 2011 to 1.27 in 2016. It is likely to further decline to 1.07 in 2021.
  • The projected sex ratio is likely to increase from 943 in 2011 to 948 in 2021.
  • A notable increase in the sex ratio recorded in Delhi (5.7%), Chandigarh (5.3%), and Arunachal Pradesh (5.0%). Contrary to this, Daman & Diu recorded a decline of 13% in the sex ratio.
Participation in Decision Making
  • Women Council of Ministers: The representation of women in the Central Council of Ministers declines over the years. The proportion of women ministers is 9.26% in 2020.
  • Female Electors: The percentage of female electors participating in General Elections went up from 65.6%in 16th to 67.2% in 17th Lok Sabha Elections.
  • Women MPs: Further, a total of 78 women members, constituting 14% of the house of parliament (MPs) elected for the 17th Lok Sabha. It is the highest number since independence.
  • Judiciary: In the judiciary, the highest number of women judges is 10 in Punjab & Haryana High Court followed by 9 in Madras High Court. There are no female judges in the High Courts of Patna, Manipur, Meghalaya, Tripura, and Uttarakhand.

Participation in Economy:

  • The share of workers in the Agriculture Sector is on a declining trend since the 43rd round of NSS to (1987-88) to PLFS (2018-19).
  • On the other hand, in the Trade, Hotel & Restaurant sector, the share of workers has shown an increasing trend.
Health-Related Statistics:
  • The Infant Mortality Rate(IMR) decreased from 39 in 2014 to 32 in 2018.
  • Also, the Maternal Mortality Rate(MMR) decreased from 212 in 2007-09 to 113 in 2016-18.
  • Further, the Total Fertility Rate of rural India was 2.3 in 2018. It was 1.7 in urban areas in 2018.
  • According to National Family Health Survey-5(NFHS-5), almost 100% institutional delivery was observed in the states of Goa, Kerala, Lakshadweep.

Source: MoSPI

New findings about Antarctica’s “Thwaites Glacier” Melting

What is the News?

Researchers at Sweden’s University of Gothenburg releases a new finding related to the melting of the Thwaites Glacier. They found that the melting was worse than previously thought.

About Thwaites Glacier:

Thwaites glaciers
Source – BBC
  • Thwaites Glacier is a 120 km wide, fast-moving glacier located in Antarctica.
  • Size: Because of its size (1.9 lakh square km), it contains enough water to raise the world sea level by more than half a meter.
  • Melting: It’s melting already contributes 4% to global sea-level rise each year. It is estimated that it would collapse into the sea in 200-900 years.
    • Studies have found the amount of ice flowing out of it has nearly doubled over the past 30 years.
  • Significance: Thwaites Glacier is important for Antarctica as it slows the ice behind it, from freely flowing into the ocean. However, because of the risk it faces — and poses — Thwaites is often called the Doomsday Glacier.

About the Study:

  • Gothenburg study used an uncrewed submarine called “Ran” to go under the Thwaites’ glacier front to make observations.
  • The researchers measured the strength, temperature, salinity, and oxygen content of the ocean currents that go under the glacier.
  • Findings: The study found that warm water is approaching the glacier from all sides. It is impacting the locations where the ice connects to the seabed and where the ice sheet finds stability. This has the potential to make things worse for Thwaites, whose ice shelf is already retreating.
Earlier Studies:
  • Cavity in the Glacier: A 2019 study had discovered a fast-growing cavity in the Thwaites’ glacier. It’s size was roughly two-thirds of the area of Manhattan.
    • A cavity is created by relatively warm ocean water melting the ice shelf. As the glacier becomes exposed to more warm-water currents, the ice will probably melt faster.
  • Detection of Warm Water at Grounding Line: In 2020, researchers from New York University(NYU) detected warm water at Thwaites’ “grounding zone” or “grounding line”.
    • The Grounding Line is the place below a glacier at which the ice transitions between resting fully on bedrock and floating on the ocean as an ice shelf. The location of the line is a pointer to the rate of retreat of a glacier.
    • When glaciers melt and lose weight, they float off the land where they used to be situated. When this happens, the grounding line retreats. That exposes more of a glacier’s underside to seawater, increasing the likelihood it will melt faster.
    • This results in the glacier speeding up, stretching out, and thinning, causing the grounding line to retreat ever further.

Source: Indian express


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