Factly :-News Articles For UPSC Prelims | 23 Apr, 2021

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PM Addressed “Leaders Summit on Climate”

Prime Minister of India has addressed the Leaders Summit on Climate virtually.

 About Leaders Summit on Climate:

  • Leaders Summit on Climate is a conference hosted by the United States(US) President on Earth Day.
  • The summit coincides with the fifth anniversary of the opening of the Paris Agreement on climate change for signature.
  • Further, the summit is also a precursor to the United Nations Climate Change Conference(COP26) that will take place later this year in Glasgow.

Objectives of the Summit: The summit brings together 40 leaders of major economies. Its main objectives are:

  • Get the world’s major economies to reduce emission in this decade while also getting the public and private sector involvement.
  • Show how climate action can have economic and social benefits.
  • Use the technology available to reduce emissions and adapt to Climate Change.
  • Use nature-based solutions to achieve net-zero emissions by 2050.

Key Takeaways from the Summit:

  • India has taken steps on clean energy, energy efficiency, afforestation and bio-diversity.That is why it is among the few countries whose Nationally Determined Contributions(NDCs) are 2-degree-Celsius compatible.
  • India’s per capita carbon footprint is 60% lower than the global average.It is because India’s lifestyle is still rooted in sustainable traditional practices.

India-U.S. climate and clean energy Agenda 2030 partnership:

  • India-U.S. climate and clean energy Agenda 2030 Partnership was announced at this Leaders Summit on Climate.
  • Goals of the Partnership:
    • To mobilise finance and speed clean energy deployment;
    • To demonstrate and scale innovative clean technologies needed to decarbonise sectors including industry, transportation, power, and buildings.
    • To build capacity to measure, manage and adapt to the risks of climate-related impacts.
  • Tracks: The partnership will proceed along two main tracks: the strategic clean energy partnership and the climate action and finance mobilisation dialogue, which will build on and subsume a range of existing processes.

Commitments by US:

  • The United States has announced its target to achieve a 50-52% reduction from 2005 levels in economy-wide net greenhouse gas pollution in 2030.
  • This will be the US new Nationally Determined Contribution(NDCs) under the Paris Agreement.

Source: The Hindu


India’s “Deep Submergence Rescue Vessel” Joins Search For Submarine

What is the News?

Indian Navy sent its deep submergence rescue vessel(DSRV) to support the Indonesian Navy in the search and rescue efforts. Indonesian submarine KRI Nanggala went missing with 53 personnel aboard.

Note: Indian Navy had received an alert through the International Submarine Escape and Rescue Liaison Office(ISMERLO) regarding the missing Indonesian submarine.

About Deep Submergence Rescue Vessel(DSRV):

  • DSRV is a type of deep-submergence vehicle used for the rescue of downed submarines and clandestine missions.
  • India is amongst the few countries in the world capable of undertaking the search and rescue of a disabled submarine through a DSRV.
  • Features: The Indian Navy’s DSRV system consists of:
    • Firstly, Side Scan Sonar: It can locate a disabled submarine up to 1,000-metre depth using side-scan sonar and remotely operated vehicle.
    • Secondly, Submarine Rescue Vehicle: It links with the submarine to rescue the trapped personnel. Thus, it can also provide emergency supplies to the submarine.
    • Third, Diver Decompression Chambers and hyperbaric medical equipment: It can decompress submariners, after rescue from a sunken submarine.

International Submarine Escape and Rescue Liaison Office(ISMERLO):

  • ISMERLO aims to facilitate an international response for distressed submarines. The office also aims to improve the ability to respond to a call for assistance, through coordination.
  • Established by: NATO and the Submarine Escape and Rescue Working Group(SMERWG) in 2003.
  • Reason: The office was established following the disaster of the Russian submarine K-141 Kursk.
  • Significance: Although established by NATO, the Office supports all nations and pursues the involvement of global submarine-operating nations.

 Source: The Hindu


“RoDTEP Scheme” -Delay in Notification of Rebate Rates

What is the News? 

Exporters are upset over the inordinate delay in the notification of the rates under the RoDTEP (Remission of Duties and Taxes on Exported Products) Scheme.

About Remission of Duties and Taxes on Exported Products(RoDTEP) Scheme:

  • Ministry of Commerce and Industry announced the RoDTEP scheme in the year 2020. It came into effect on January 1st, 2021.
  • The scheme replaced the Merchandise Export from India Scheme(MEIS). MEIS was not compliant with the rules of the World Trade Organisation(WTO).
    • US lodged a complaint against India’s MEIS scheme in WTO. Further, a dispute settlement panel of WTO ruled against India’s use of MEIS. It had found the duty credit scrips awarded under the scheme to be inconsistent with WTO norms.
  • Purpose: The RoDTEP scheme will refund the embedded central, state, and local duties or taxes to exporters that were previously non-recoverable. Such as:
    • Central & state taxes on the fuel used for transportation of export products
    • The duty levied by the state on electricity used for manufacturing
    • Mandi tax levied by APMCs
    • Lastly, Toll tax & stamp duty on the import-export documentation.
  • Exporters will receive the refund of taxes on exports in exporters’ ledger account with the Customs department. Further, exporters can utilize this credit to pay basic customs duty on imported goods. They can also transfer credits to other importers.
  • Coverage: The scheme covers all export goods starting from January 1, 2021.
  • Significance of the scheme: The scheme would lead to the cost competitiveness of exported products in international markets and better employment opportunities in export-oriented manufacturing industries.

Source: The Hindu


The significance of “World Earth Day”

What is the News?

World Earth Day is being celebrated on April 22, 2021.

World Earth day 2021 theme: ‘Restore Our Earth’. The theme focuses on natural processes, emerging green technologies and innovative thinking to restore the world’s ecosystems.

 

About World Earth Day

  • World Earth Day is celebrated every year on 22nd April. It was celebrated for the first time in the year 1970.
  • In 2009 the United Nations designated April 22 as ‘International Mother Earth Day
  • Aim: The celebration of earth day is to achieve the following objectives.
    • To build the world’s largest environmental movement to drive transformative change for people and the planet.
    • To diversify, educate and activate the environmental movement worldwide.
  • Origin: Earth Day was first observed in the year 1970. The idea of commemorating such a day was advised by Gaylord Nelson, a US senator from Wisconsin, USA.
  • Led by: The activities on Earth Day are led by earthday.org formerly known as Earth Day Network.
    • It is a US-based international environmental NGO and has a presence in 195 countries.
  • Significance: The Paris Agreement brought almost 200 countries together in setting a common target to reduce global greenhouse emissions. It was signed on Earth Day 2016.

Source: Indian Express


“Boao Forum for Asia” Annual Conference 2021

What is the News?

The opening ceremony of the Boao Forum for Asia Annual Conference 2021 was held in Boao, China.

Boao  Forum for Asia -Annual Conference 2021:

  • More than 2,600 guests from over 60 countries and region attended the conference.
  • Theme: “A World in Change: Join Hands to Strengthen Global Governance and Advance Belt and Road Cooperation.”

Boao Forum for Asia(BFA):

  • Boao Forum for Asia(BFA) is a non-profit international organization founded in the year 2001.
  • Purpose: The Forum is committed to promoting regional economic integration in Asia. It also aims at bringing Asian countries even closer to their development goals.
  • Members: 29 participant countries including India. Other countries include China, Australia, Japan, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal among others.
  • Annual Conference: BFA holds its annual conference in Boao in Hainan, China on a regular basis.
  • Significance: Boao Forum is modeled on the World Economic Forum held annually in Davos, Switzerland. So it also called Davos of the East.
  • Headquarters: China.

Source: Livemint


“Blue Nature Alliance” launched to restore oceans in five years

What is the News?

Blue Nature Alliance has been launched with a goal to restore 7 million square miles of ocean in five years.

About Blue Nature Alliance:

  • Blue Nature Alliance is a global partnership. It was founded and led by Conservation International, Pew Charitable Trusts, Global Environment Facility(GEF), Minderoo Foundation and Rob & Melani Walton Foundation.
  • Aim: To safeguard global ocean biodiversity, build resilience to climate change, promote human well-being and enhance ecosystem connectivity.
  • Targets: The alliance has a target to:
    • Conserve 18 million square kilometres of ocean in five years.
    • Protect 5% of the world’s ocean in five years.
    • Help the world achieve 30% ocean conservation by 2030.
  • Target Oceans: The Alliance has started by targeting seven ocean locations. This includes Antarctica, Fiji, Canada, Seychelles, Palau, the Western Indian Ocean and Tristan da Cunha, an island in the South Atlantic Ocean.
  • The alliance will begin work by working with local communities and national leaders. It aims to establish new marine protected areas (MPAs) and improve the management of existing ones.

About Conservation International(CI):

  • Conservation International(CI) is an American nonprofit environmental organization founded in 1987.
  • Objective: Its mission is to spotlight and secure the critical benefits that nature provides to humanity. Such as food, freshwater, livelihoods and a stable climate,etc.
  • Headquarters: Virginia, USA.

Source: CNN


ISRO’s “RESPOND Programme” to support joint research projects of IIT-D

What is the News?

Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) announced its support to 8 joint research projects of Space Technology Cell (STC), IIT-Delhi. ISRO will support these projects under its RESPOND programme.

About RESPOND Programme:

  • ISRO launched the RESPOND (Research Sponsored) programme in the 1970s.
  • Objective: To establish strong links with premier academic institutions through financial assistance to carry out R&D projects relevant to space. Further, ISRO will derive useful outputs of such R&D projects and use that in ISRO programmes.
  • Financial Support: Under the Programme, ISRO provides financial support for conducting research and development activities. Projects related to space science, space technology and space applications in universities and academic institutions in India will get such financial support.
  • Administered by: The programme is under the administration of the Physical Research Laboratory(PRL). PRL is an autonomous unit under the Department of Space.
  • Significance: The research studies conducted under the programme will focus on some future Space activities of ISRO. Further, It will also act as a good supplement to various missions undertaken by ISRO.

Source: The Hindu


 

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