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General Studies Paper 1 – Keywords

Indian Heritage & Culture, History and Geography of the world and Society

Topic 1: Art & Culture – Salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times

Key concepts: Architecture – Forts – Palaces – Temple Architecture – Nagara – Vesara – Dravida – Caves – Ajanta – Ellora – Elephanta – Cave Paintings – Mosques – Arches – Domes – Public Buildings – Charles Corbusier – Sculptor – Indus Valley Civilization – Pashupati – Nataraja – Tandava – Ashokan – Buddhist – Pillars & Stupa – Indo-Greek – Mathura – Gandhara – Amravati – Gupta Period Sculptor – Delhi Sultanate – Evolution of Coinage – Gupta numismatic art – Gupta Sculptor in South Indian Temples & Caves – Mahabalipuram – Chola Temples – Paintings – Pre-historic paintings – Petroglyphs – Mesolithic Paintings – Chalcolithic Paintings – Pottery Paintings in Indus Valley Civilization – Vedic Age – Indo Greeks Period – Mural Paintings – Ajanta Ellora – Haathi Gumpha – Medieval Period Paintings – Miniature Paintings – Palas – Arabesque – Regional Schools of Painting – Maithili – Manjusha – Kalamkari – Kalighat – Phad – Worli – Batik – Tanjavur – Mysore Paintings – Mughal Paintings – Portrait – Miniature – Narrative Paintings – Rajput School – Pahari School – Indian Renaissance – Company School of Paintings – Bengal Renaissance – Nationalist School of Paintings – Raja Ravi Verma – Qubic Style – M F Hussain – Modern Art – Performing Arts – Dance – Classical – Folk – Martial Arts – Bharatanatyam, Kathak, Kathakali, Kuchipudi, Odissi, Sattriya, Manipuri, Mohiniyattam – Music – Hindustani – Carnatic – Gharana Tradition – Lucknow – Gwalior – Darbhanga – Kirana – Instruments – String Based – Wind Instruments – Drum – Dholak – Mridang – Veena – Tabla – Santoor – Theatre – National School of Drama – Yakshgan – Nautanki – Rasleela – Bhand – Pather – Jatra – Puppetry – Gloves – Rod – String – Shadow Puppetry – Literature – Vedic Literature – Sangam Literature – Bhakti Literature – Early & Later – Buddhist Lit. – Jain Lit. Accounts of Travelers – Chinese – Fa-Hein – Megasthenes – Hein Tsang – Continuity of Indian Culture – Sangam Era – Arab Travelers – Al-Beruni – Ibn Battuta – Minhaz Siraj – Court Historians – Navratnas – Tansen – Amir Khusro – Abul Fazl – Abdul Badayuni – European Travelers – Francis Bernier – Vasco De Gama – Marco Polo – Nicolo Conti – Abdul Razzaq – Barbosa – Father Monserrat – Ralphfich – Captain Hawkins – Schools of Philosophy – Astika – Nastika – Charvaka – Jain – Buddha – Samkhya – Ajivikas – Mimamsa – Vedanta – Nayaya – Yoga – Samkhya – Vaisheshika – Advait – Shankaracharya – Bhakti Philosophy – Medieval Times – Kabir – Guru Nanak – “Vasudhaiv Kutumbakam” – Architecture of Modern Cities – Chandigarh – Le Corbusier – Lessons in Planning from Ancient India.

Topic 2: Modern History: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues. The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.

Modern History: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until 1905: Advent of Europeans – Portuguese – Contribution – Causes of FailureFrench – Carnatic Wars – Why they failed against the British? – Battle of Panipat – British and Native States – Battle of Plassey – Buxar – Anglo – Marathas – Anglo – Punjab – Sindh Conquest – Establishment of British rule in India – British policies and its impact – Land Revenue System – Permanent Settlement – Mahalwari – Ryotwari – Commercialization of Agriculture – Development of Civil Services – Police – Education – Press – Famine Commissions – De-industrialization – Railways – Local Self Government – Constitutional Developments – Regulating Act 1773,1784 – Charter Acts – Government of India Act 1858,1909,1919,1935 – Indian Councils Act 1861,1892 – Religious and social reform movements and their impact – Growth of art, literature and modern press in India – Major Social reforms – Indian Renaissance – Raja Ram Mohan Roy – Ishvar Chandra Vidyasagar – Caste movements in south India & Maharashtra – Reforms of Cornwallis, Wellesley, Hasting, William Bentick, Dalhousie – Revolt of 1857 , causes and consequences – Rise of Indian Nationalism – Drain Theory – Early political movements and Indian National Congress – Moderates – Extremists – Role of Lytton, Ripon and Curzon – Rise of extremism – Swadeshi and Boycott movement in India – Split in Congress and rise of revolutionary terrorism – Morley-Minto reforms and formation of Muslim League – Modern Indian history from 1905 until independence: Gandhi in South Africa – Role of Gandhi in eradication of Indentured slavery system – Return of Mahatma Gandhi – Gandhian Philosophy – Satyagraha – His ideas on Communalism, Trusteeship, Socialism, Means and Ends – Relevance of Gandhian ideas in present times – Gandhi vs Nehru, Gandhi vs Tagore, Gandhi vs Ambedkar, Gandhi vs Subhash – Role of Women in Gandhian movements –Why Gandhi was successful – Champaran, Ahmedabad and Kheda Movement – Gadhar Movement – Home rule movement and its impact – Role of Foreigners in National Movement –Influence of foreign events on Indian National movement – Non-cooperation movement and Khilafat movement – Gandhi vs Jinnah on Khilafat Issue – Montague Chelmsford reforms 1919 – Swarajists – Rise of Left – Congress Socialist Party – Communists – JLN, Subhash Bose influence – Peasant movements in India – Rise of communalism and its dangerous effects – Simon Commission – Lahore Congress, from Swaraj to complete independence – Civil disobedience movement – Round table conferences – Poona Pact – Constitutional development, Government of India Act 1935 – 28-month congress rule – National movement during world war – Individual Satyagraha – August Offer – Cripps Proposal – Quit India Movement – Wavell Plan – Rajaji’s Formula – INA Trials – RIN Mutiny – National upsurge after second world war – Tebhaga Movement – Formation of Interim government – Constituent Assembly – Wavell Breakdown Plan – Mountbatten Plan – Menon Plan – Independence of India Act,1947 – Partition and Communal Violence.

Topic 3: Post-Independence: Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.

Post-Independence India: Keywords: Challenges before Indian Democracy – Impact and Legacy of Colonial Rule – Integration of Princely States – Linguistic State Formation and Issue of National and Official Language – Integration of Tribal – North Eastern – Challenges – Regionalism and Regional Inequality – Tribal Panchsheel – Land and Agriculture reforms – Zamindari Abolition – Tenancy Reforms (Operation Barga) – Land Ceilings; The Bhoodan Movement & Gramdan Movement – Recent land reforms – Green Revolution & Green Revolution – Foreign Policy, NAM and Relations with countries – International role – Indo China war – Indira Gandhi: Inner party struggle and congress split, Bangladesh Challenge, 1971 and Indo- Pak War – Shimla Agreement,1972 – Emergency: cause and consequences – Separatist movement: Kashmir, Punjab, North East – Women movements – Environmental movements in Post-Independence – Dalit Politics – Development of Science – New Farmer Movement

Topic 4: World History: History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.

World History: Events from 18th century till world war I: Keywords: Renaissance – Age of Enlightenment – Industrial Revolution – Causes & Consequences – IR in Britain, Japan, Russia, India – Impact on India – Emergence of new ideologies like capitalism, communism, socialism – American revolution and civil war – American Constitution – British Mercantilism – French revolution – Rise and fall of Napoleon – Vienna Congress – Rise of Nation states – Rise of Socialism – Communism – 1st International – 2nd International – Workers Movement – unification of Germany and Italy – Balkan Wars – Imperialism and colonization- World warcause and consequence, Treaty of Versailles – League of Nations – Russian revolution, cause and consequence – Lenin’s New Economic Policy – Stalin’s Economic policies – Great Depression and the New Deal Events from world war I and onwards: Keywords: Rise of Nazism and Hitler in Germany – Role of Hitler in WWII – Policy of appeasement – Rise of Fascism in Italy – Japanese imperialism – Chinese revolution – Spanish Revolution – World war II- cause and consequences – Decolonization and achievement of freedom by nations (from 18th century onwards) – West Africa – Indonesia – Apartheid – Malay Peninsula – Cold war and bipolar world – Cuban Missile Crisis – Afro-Asian unity and Non- alignment – Arab Nationalism – Palestine and Israel-Arab conflict – fall of USSR – Gorbachev’s policies – Fall of Berlin Wall – Gulf wars – Iranian revolution – Afghan Invasion – European Union – Formation and new challenges.

Topic 5: Indian Society: Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India. Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies. Effects of globalization on Indian society. Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.

Key Concepts: Salient Features of Indian Society – Issues related to: Religion, communalism and secularism – Family – Caste system and caste based discrimination – Marriage and divorce – Print, digital and social media – Education – Women and gender based discrimination – Children – Senior citizen – Disabled – Youth- Urban Population and Rural population – Tribal – Impact of globalization on all social groups – Regionalism – Pluralism and Diversity of language, culture, food, institutions etc. – Women empowerment: social reforms, women organizations and SHGs – Population: age structure, literacy, sex ratio – Poverty and poverty line – Inequalities and exclusions – Social cause of poverty – Poverty alleviation initiatives.

Topic 6: Physical Geography: Salient features of world’s physical geography.
Topic 8: Geophysical Phenomena: Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

Geomorphology: Interior of the earth – Continental drift theory – Plate tectonic theory – Landform development in karst regions, arid region, glacial region – Landforms development due to fluvial, Aeolian and glacial action – Endogenic and Exogenic forces – Formation of fold mountains and island arcs – Volcanism and related landforms – Earthquakes and tsunami. Cryosphere. Oceanography: Temperature and salinity of the oceans – Ocean currents – Waves and tides – Coral reefs and coral bleaching – EL NINO and ENSO – Sea level change – Ocean acidification – Mineral Reserves – Deep Sea Mining – Challenges Climatology: Composition and structure of atmosphere – Temperature and pressure belts of the world – Atmospheric circulation- Planetary and local winds – Monsoon and jet streams – Air masses and air front – Tropical cyclones – Temperate cyclones – Heat budget – Climate change – Urban climate – Ozone Depletion Biogeography: Soils: types and locations; Major biomes of the world: tropical rainforest,
temperate forests, Savanah grasslands, temperate grasslands, Desert biome, Monsoon and Mediterranean biome – Wetlands- Mangrove vegetation. Contemporary issues.

Topic 7: Human and Economic Geography: Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India).

Human and Economic Geography: Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent): Minerals: Iron, Aluminum, Manganese, Lead, Zinc, Copper, Uranium, Rare earth metals – Energy resources: Coal, Oil and natural Gas – non-conventional energy resources: Coal bed methane, Shale gas etc. – Renewable Energy resources: Solar energy, wind energy, geothermal etc. Factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India): Iron and steel, Automobile, Cotton, Fertilizer, Pharmaceuticals etc. Indian Agriculture. Population and settlement geography: growth, distribution and demographic attributes – demographic dividend- Urbanization, Migration – problems in urban and rural areas – Slums – Urban sprawl – Urban Infrastructure-Industrial Corridors. Geopolitics. Space.

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