“M-Sand Policy” a policy to promote manufactured sand
Why in News?
The Rajasthan government has brought a policy on manufactured sand (M-sand). It will provide an industry status to the units producing manufactured sand for construction work.
It will reduce the dependence on riverbed sand.
What is Manufactured Sand(M-Sand)?
- Manufactured sand (M-Sand) is a substitute of river sand for concrete construction. It is produced by crushed hard granite stone.
- The crushed sand is of cubical shape with rounded edges, washed and graded to as a construction material. The size of manufactured sand (M-Sand) is less than 4.75mm.
Usage of Manufactured Sand
- Due to the fast-growing construction industry, the demand for sand has increased tremendously causing deficiency of suitable river sand in most parts of the world.
- Hence, to avoid the depletion of good quality river sand for the use of construction, the use of manufactured sand has been increased.
Benefits of M-Sand:
- It is easily available and has less transportation cost.
- It does not contain organic and soluble compounds that affect the setting time and properties of cement, thus the required strength of concrete can be maintained.
- M-Sand does not have the presence of impurities such as clay, dust and silt coatings which help in producing better quality concrete.
- Furthermore, it can be dust-free and the sizes of m-sand can be controlled easily so that it meets the required grading for the given construction.
- It eliminates the environmental impact that occurred due to the lifting of natural sand from the river bed.
Source: The Hindu
30 Indian cities will face ‘water risk’ by 2050: Water Risk Filter analysis report
News: World Wildlife Fund(WWF) has released the Water Risk Filter analysis report.
- Water Risk Filter: It is an online tool co-developed by the WWF that helps evaluate the severity of risk places faced by graphically illustrating various factors that can contribute to water risk.
- Water Risk: 100 cities that hold importance in national as well as global economies and are home to 350 million people are set to face the greatest rise in water risks by 2050.
- Global List: Egypt’s Alexandria tops the list and is followed by Mecca in Saudi Arabia, China’s Tangshan, Saudi Arabia’s Dammam, and Riyadh. China accounts for almost half the cities.
- Indian Cities: India has 30 cities on the list. Jaipur(45th) topped the list of Indian cities followed by Indore(75th) and Thane. Mumbai, Kolkata, and Delhi also featured on the list.
- Multi-Stakeholder engagement and ownership involving local communities could be the key to creating and conserving sustainable water infrastructure and rejuvenating urban freshwater systems.
- Urban planning and wetland conservation need to be integrated to ensure zero loss of freshwater systems in urban areas.
- Improving urban water infrastructure and cutting water consumption will help reduce water risks
- Nature-based solutions including restoring degraded watersheds, reconnecting rivers to their floodplains, and restoring or creating urban wetlands are critical.
- WWF: It is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961 to stop the degradation of the planet’s natural environment and to build a future in which humans live in harmony with nature.
- Headquarters: Gland, Switzerland.