How ForumIAS Blog’s Current Affairs were Useful for aspirants in UPSC Mains 2021 General Studies 2 and 3?

Dear Friends,

It’s a moment of joy for us, and equally so for the aspirants who’ve been following our blog initiatives sincerely.

Many of the questions that came in UPSC GS Mains 2021 GS Papers 2 and 3 were covered on the ForumIAS blog under various initiatives, like, the 9PM Brief, 7PM Editorial and other initiatives.

More than 70% of questions were such that they could be answered by anyone following our daily blog initiatives sincerely. Many aspirants have loved and appreciated our efforts throughout the year and we are glad that we were helpful for aspirants in scoring well in the Mains examination.

We are confident that the regular readers of our blog will surely score well in their UPSC GS Mains papers this year.

Here is a segregated list containing questions and the equivalent sources (articles) on our blog:


UPSC Mains – GS Paper 2

QuestionsBlog Articles
Q1. ‘Constitutional Morality’ is rooted in the Constitution itself and is founded on its essential facets. Explain the doctrine of ‘Constitutional Morality’ with the help of relevant judicial decisions. (150 words, 10 marks)Article 1: What is Constitutional morality? How does one uphold Constitutional morality? Discuss its importance in public services? 
Q2. Discuss the desirability of greater representation to women in the higher judiciary to ensure diversity, equity and inclusiveness. (150 words, 10 marks)Article 1: Issue of Gender gap in judiciary – Explained, pointwise (7PM Editorial) 

Article 2: CJI voices support for 50% representation for women in judiciary 

Article 3: Gender deficit in Indian judicial system 

Q3. How have the recommendations of the 14th Finance Commission of India enabled the states to improve their fiscal position? (150 words, 10 marks)
Q4. To what extent, in your view, the Parliament is able to ensure accountability of the executive in India? (150 words, 10 marks)Article 1: Declining Role of Parliament in Ensuring Accountability of Executive 

Article 2: Parliamentary debates: significance, issues and way forward: Explained, pointwise 

Article 3: Functioning of Parliament: Challenges and way forward – Explained, pointwise 

Article 4: Parliamentary Standing committee: role and significance  

Q5. “Pressure groups play a vital role in influencing public policy making in India.” Explain how the business associations contribute to public policies. (150 words, 10 marks)
Article 1: What are Pressure groups? Role and significance 

Article 2: Importance of Pressure groups in ensuring good governance 

Q6. “Besides being a moral imperative of Welfare State, primary health structure is a necessary pre-condition for sustainable development.” Analyze. (150 words, 10 marks)
Article 1: Recent steps taken by the Govt to improve India’s healthcare system 
Q7. “‘Earn while you learn’ scheme needs to be strengthened to make vocational education and skill training meaningful.” Comment. (150 words, 10 marks)Article 1: Bringing skills and education closer 

Article 2: Skill development in India 

Article 3: Bridging Gap Of Industry Linkages In Skill Training 

Q8. Can the vicious cycle of gender inequality, poverty and malnutrition be broken through microfinancing of women SHGs? Explain with examples. (150 words, 10 marks)
Article 1: SHG-led women empowerment 
Q9. “If the last few decades were of Asia’s growth story, the next few are expected to be of Africa’s.” In the light of this statement, examine India’s influence in Africa in recent years. (150 words, 10 marks)
Article 1: India-Africa relations – Explained, pointwise 

Article 2: “India-Africa relation and trade is crucial for India to achieve $5 trillion economic goal”. Discuss. 

Article 3: Crafting a unique partnership with Africa 

Q10. “The USA is facing an existential threat in the form of a China, that is much more challenging than the erstwhile Soviet Union.” Explain. (150 words, 10 marks)
Q11. The jurisdiction of the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) regarding lodging an FIR and conducting probe within a particular state is being questioned by various States. However, the power of States to withhold consent to the CBI is not absolute. Explain with special reference to the federal character of India. (250 words, 15 marks)
Article 1: The Issue of Withdrawal of General Consent to CBI – Explained, pointwise 

Article 2: General consent for CBI: The law, and political reasons for its denial 

Q12. Though the Human Rights Commissions have contributed immensely to the protection of human rights in India, yet they have failed to assert themselves against the mighty and powerful. Analyzing their structural and practical limitations, suggest remedial measures. (250 words, 15 marks)Article: Effectiveness of ‘The National and State Human Rights Commissions’ 
Q13. Analyze the distinguishing features of the notion of Equality in the Constitutions of the USA and India. (250 words, 15 marks) 
Q14. Explain the constitutional provisions under which Legislative Councils are established. Review the working and current status of Legislative Councils with suitable illustrations. (250 words, 15 marks)
Article 1: Role played by State Legislative Councils and their effectiveness 

Article 2: Need and importance of legislative councils 

Q15. Do Department -related Parliamentary Standing Committees keep the administration on its toes and inspire reverence for parliamentary control? Evaluate the working of such committees with suitable examples. (250 words, 15 marks) Article: Need and significance of parliamentary standing committees in Indian Democracy 
Q16. Has digital illiteracy, particularly in rural areas, couple with lack of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) accessibility hindered socio-economic development? Examine with justification. (250 words, 15 marks)
Article: “Right to Internet access and digital literacy should be recognised as a right in itself.” Discuss in the light of digital inequalities in India. 
Q17. “Though women in post-Independent India have excelled in various fields, the social attitude towards women and feminist movement has been patriarchal.” Apart from women education and women empowerment schemes, what interventions can help change this milieu? (250 words, 15 marks) 
Article1: The Indian women’s movement can only grow by being inclusive 

Article 2: Misinformation through Feminist Lens 

Article 3: Gender budgeting and women empowerment 

Article 4: [Yojana September Summary] SHG-led Women Empowerment – Explained, pointwise 

Q18. Can Civil Society and Non-Governmental Organizations present an alternative model of public service delivery to benefit the common citizen. Discuss the challenges of this alternative model. (250 words, 15 marks)Article: Discuss the importance of NGOs in India’s development process. Do you think present legal and regulatory mechanisms are adequate for efficient working of NGOs? 
Q19. Critically examine the aims and objectives of SCO. What importance does it hold for India. (250 words, 15 marks)
Article 1: Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) 

Article 2: Can the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation be the regional body that stabilises Afghanistan? 

Article 3: PM calls on SCO to act against radicalization 

Q20. The newly tri-nation partnership AUKUS is aimed at countering China’s ambitions in the Indo-Pacific region. Is it going to supersede the existing partnerships in the region? Discuss the strenght and impact of AUKUS in the present scenario. (250 words, 15 marks)Article 1: AUKUS Security Alliance – Explained, pointwise 

Article 2: With AUKUS dividing the Western bloc, is there a role for India? 

Article 3: AUKUS could rock China’s boat in the Indo-Pacific 



UPSC Mains – GS Paper 3

QuestionBlog Articles
Q1. Explain the difference between computing methodology of India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) before the year 2015 and after the year 2015. (150 words, 10 marks) Article: Changes brought in GDP Calculations in 2015
Q2. Distinguish between Capital Budget and Revenue Budget. Explain the components of both these Budgets. (150 words, 10 marks) Article:  What are components of Budget?   
Q3. How did land reforms in some parts of the country help to improve the socio-economic conditions of marginal and small farmers? (150 words, 10 marks) Article 1: Various land reforms in India Before and after independence

Article 2: Discuss various land reforms in India? How they lead to agricultural efficiency and social equity

Q4. How and to what extent would micro-irrigation help in solving India’s water crisis? (150 words, 10 marks) Article 1: Micro-irrigation: The way ahead for sustainable agriculture 

Article 2: Explain the benefits of micro-irrigation over the conventional irrigation systems. Also mention various challenges in the adoption of this technology.  

Article 3: What is water-use efficiency? Describe the role of micro-irrigation in increasing the water-use efficiency. 

Article 4: An SOS call from the Indian micro-irrigation industry 

Q5. How is S-400 air defence system technically superior to any other system presently available in the world? (150 words, 10 marks) Article: S-400 Triumf Missile system – Explained, pointwise 
Q6. Explain the purpose of the Green Grid Initiative launched at World Leaders Summit of the COP26 UN Climate Change Conference in Glasgow in November, 2021. When was this idea first floated in the International Solar Alliance (ISA)? (150 words, 10 marks) Article 1: What is the ggi osowog project? – Explained, pointwise

Article 2: India UK launch first transnational solar grid plan on osowog initiative 

Article 3: Green Grids Initiative-One Sun One World One Grid Northwest Europe Cooperative Event 

Q7. Describe the key points of the revised Global Air Quality Guidelines (AQGs) recently released by the World Health Organisation (WHO). How are these different from its last update in 2005? What changes in India’s National Clean Air Programme are required to achieve these revised standards? (150 words, 10 marks) Article 1: WHO says air pollution kills 7 million a year, toughens guidelines 

Article 2: New Evidence Led To WHO’s New Air Quality Standard 

Article 3: WHO’s new air quality standards underline the health-pollution link. It’s time policies take a holistic approach 

Q8. Discuss about the vulnerability of India to earthquake related hazards. Give examples including the salient features of major disasters caused by earthquakes in different parts of India during the last three decades. (150 words, 10 marks) 
Q9. Discuss how emerging technologies and globalization contribute to money laundering. Elaborate measures to tackle the problem of money laundering both at national and international levels. (150 words, 10 marks)Article 1: [Answered]Discuss various measures undertaken by the government to curb and control black money. To what extent have these measures been able to address the problem of black money in India. 

Article 2: [Answered] Critically analyse the role and effectiveness of FATF (Financial Action Task Force) in combating the financing of terrorism. 

Q10. Keeping in view India’s internal security, analyse the impact of cross-border cyber-attacks. Also discuss defensive measures against these sophisticated attacks. (150 words, 10 marks) 


Article 1: Cyber attacks and Cyber Security in India – Explained, Pointwise 

Article 2: Cyberattacks in india and institutional arrangements for cybersecurity

Article 3: Cyberattacks on critical infrastructure/ 

Article 4: Need of strengthening cyber resilience of civilian infrastructure 

Article 5: Increasing cyber threat and need for cyber strategy 

Article 6: [Answered]Discuss various threats and challenges to cyber-security in India. What initiatives are being taken by the government to enhance cyber-security in India? 

Article 7: [Answered] “To showcase itself as a legitimate power in cyberspace, India have to shed its piecemeal approach about cybersecurity.” Examine critically. 

Q11. Do you agree that the Indian economy has recently experienced V- shapes recovery?Give reasons in support of your answer. (250 words, 15 marks)
Article 1: Indian economy witnessing V-shaped recovery: Finance Ministry report 

Article 2: Where’s The V-Shaped Recovery? 

Article 3: Indian economic recovery – Unlock phases 

Article 4: Where’s The V-Shaped Recovery? 

Q12. “Investment in infrastructure is essential for more rapid and inclusive economic growth. ”Discuss in the light of India’s experience. (250 words, 15 marks)
Article 1: PM Gati Shakti – National Infrastructure Master Plan – Explained, pointwise 

Article 2: Statsguru: Six charts show India’s infrastructure projects in a slow lane 

Article 3: Infrastructure and manufacturing led growth in India 

Article 4: [Answered] Explain the key issues in infrastructure financing in India. What steps have been taken by the government to address these issues? 

Article 5: [Answered]What is National Infrastructure Pipeline? Discuss its need and significance in light of India’s aim to become a $5 trillion economy. 


Q13. What are the salient features of the National Food Security Act, 2013 ? How has the Food Security Bill helped in eliminating hunger and malnutrition in India? (250 words, 15 marks)

Article 1: National Food Security Act, 2013 

Article 2: The way to tackle malnutrition 

Article 3: Food security in India and its challenges- Explained, pointwise 

Q14. What are the present challenges before crop diversification? How do emerging technologies provide an opportunity for crop diversification? (250 words, 15 marks)

Q15. What are the research and developmental achievements in applied biotechnology/? How will these achievements help to uplift the poorer sections of the society? (250 words, 15 marks) 


Article 1: [Answered] Examine how Biotechnology sector can emerge as engine of economic growth and societal change? 

Article 2: Year-End- Review-2021- Ministry of Science and Technology 

Article 3: [Answered]Examine the role of biotechnology in achieving food security in India. What are various challenges faced by biotechnology sector in India? 

Article 4: Union Minister says North East to be developed as India’s Bio-Economic Hub 

Q16. The Nobel Prize in Physics of 2014 was jointly awarded to Akasaki, Amano and Nakamura for the invention of Blue LEDs in 1990s. How has this invention impacted the everyday life of human beings? (250 words, 15 marks)

Q17. Describe the major outcomes of the 26th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). What are the commitments made by India in this conference? (250 words, 15 marks) Article 1: Glasgow Climate Pact – Explained, pointwise 

Article 2: India announces new climate targets at COP26 – Explained, pointwise 

Q18. Describe the various causes and the effects of landslides. Mention the important components of the National Landslide Risk Management Strategy. (250 words, 15 marks) Article: Landslides in India: impacts and management – Explained, pointwise 
Q19. Analyse the multidimensıonal challenges posed by external state and non-state actors, to the internal security of India. Also discuss measures required to be taken to combat these threats. (250 words, 15 marks)
Article 1: Refugees from Myanmar and India’s internal Security challenge 

Article 2: Implications of the rise of Taliban for India – Explained, pointwise 

Article 3: Maritime Security Challenges – Explained, Pointwise 

Article 4: Cyber attacks and Cyber Security in India – Explained Pointwise 

Q20. Analyse the complexity and intensity of terrorism, its causes, linkages and obnoxious nexus. Also suggest measures required to be taken to eradicate the menace of terrorism. (250 words, 15 marks) 


Article 1: Implications of the rise of Taliban for India – Explained, pointwise 

Article 2: [Answered] “World is facing an unprecedented threat from intolerance, violent extremism and terrorism, exacerbating conflicts and destabilising entire regions”. Discuss how India should tackle the growing threat of extremism and terrorism in the region? 

Article 3: [Answered] “Media is a very important organ to fight terrorism.” In light of this discuss the critical role media need to play in fight against the terrorism?

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