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Source: The post is based on an article “In light of China-Russia alliance and Ukraine conflict, India and the new Eurasia” published in The Indian Express on 18th January 2023.
Syllabus: GS 2 – International Relations
Relevance: changing relations between Asia and Europe
News: The article discusses the changing geopolitical scenario between Asia and Europe.
How is the geo-politics between Asia and Europe changing?
Japan – The PM of Japan is determined to build strong military partnerships with Europe. He has also said that the security of Europe and the Indo-Pacific is indivisible.
South Korea – it is also joining the party by raising its profile in Europe. For example, it is selling major weapons platforms in Poland.
Australia – It has joined the US and UK in the AUKUS arrangement, and is equally eager to bring Europe into the Indo-Pacific.
Together Japan, South Korea and Australia are bridging the divide between Asia and Europe which was once seen as separate geopolitical areas.
Moreover, the partnership between Asia and Europe has increased by Russia’s war in Ukraine and due to the alliance between Russia and China. Thus, leading to the emergence of a new Eurasia.
How did the ties between Russia and China help in the emergence of new Eurasia?
Putin signed an agreement with China declaring an alliance “without limits” and no “forbidden areas”.
China in the past tried to make an alliance with Europe but was unsuccessful in that. So, it joined Russia by blaming NATO for the crisis in Ukraine.
However, their alliance resulted in strengthening the Western alliance in Europe and emergence of a new kind of Eurasia — an alliance between China’s East Asian neighbours and Russia’s West European neighbours.
Further, the US invited key Asian partners to participate at the NATO summit held in June last year.
The prime ministers of Australia, Japan and New Zealand as well as the president of South Korea joined the summit. This was the first time that Asian leaders joined NATO deliberations.
It is expected that NATO’s engagement with Indo-Pacific issues and East Asia’s engagement with European security will continue to be new features of Eurasian geopolitics.
Moreover, the US is eager to encourage its partners, including India, to build their capabilities and strengthen regional balances of power in Europe and Asia.
How did the alliance between Russia and China impact Japan?
Japan, which has faced a bilateral maritime territorial dispute with China and looking at China’s expansionary policies, changed its security policy.
It has planned to double annual defence spending over the next five years, and build a large missile arsenal to deter China and North Korea.
It also wants to revive its domestic defence industry as well as build military capacities on the Chinese border by exporting arms.
What are the implications for India due to the emergence of new Eurasia?
The emergence of new Eurasia brings challenges for India. Earlier, India had a maritime coalition (the Quad) in the Indo-Pacific and at the same time had continental coalitions led by Russia and China.
However, the conflict between the US, Europe, and Japan on the one hand and China and Russia on the other will bring challenges for India in balancing its relation with these countries.
Further, the alliance between Russia and China will bring more challenges to India towards its security policies.
However, in presence of these events the relation of India with the US. Europe, Japan, South Korea and Australia have become stronger.