India approves two COVID-19 vaccines for emergency use

News: Central Drugs and Standards Committee(CDSCO) has approved the COVID-19 vaccines COVISHIELD and COVAXIN for restricted use in emergency situations. Initially, the 3 crore medical personnel considered at the highest risk for COVID-19, would be given the vaccine for free.


Type of vaccine

Source: The Hindu


  • It is a vaccine developed by the Serum Institute of India based on the Oxford AstraZeneca vaccine named ChAdOx1 vaccine (also christened AZD1222) i
  • Type of vaccine: It is made from a weakened version of a common cold adenovirus that causes infections in chimpanzees.
  • Effectiveness: The overall efficacy of the vaccine was found to be 70.42% — well below vaccines from Pfizer and Moderna but above the 50% threshold set by many regulators.
  • Dosage, protection duration and storage: The vaccine has been recommended for the approval of two full doses administered around 4-6 weeks apart. Immune response could last at least a year. The vaccine can be stored at temperatures between 2°C and 8°C.


  • It has been indigenously developed by Hyderabad-based Bharat Biotech in collaboration with the Indian Council of Medical Research(ICMR).
  • Type of vaccine: It is an inactivated vaccine and is made by using particles of the coronavirus that were killed making them unable to infect or replicate. Injecting particular doses of these particles serves to build immunity by helping the body create antibodies against the dead virus.
  • Effectiveness: The vaccine is safe and provides a robust immune response. The vaccine is yet to complete late-stage human clinical trials in India and no efficacy rate has yet been made public.
  • Dosage, protection duration and storage: The vaccine will be administered in two doses and stored at 2-8° degrees Celsius. The efficacy of the vaccine is to be determined only after 14 days post the second dose.

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