According to studies, India has entered a 37
year period of demographic dividend since 2018.
The period of demographic dividend will last
till 2055. This has been created as India’s working-age population (people
between 15 and 64 years of age) has grown larger than the dependant population
(children aged 14 or below plus people above 65 years of age)
United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) defines demographic
dividend as the growth potential that results from shifts in a population’s age
structure. The transition happens largely because of a decrease in the Total
fertility rate (TFR) (the number of births per woman), after the increase in
life expectancy gets stabilised.
However, it is important to note that Demographic
dividend provided by the increasing share of working age adults is a temporary
phase. To reap the benefits of demographic dividend, India should invest in the
education and health of the workforce and provide employment opportunities to
Examples of countries who successfully reaped
the benefits of demographic dividend and experienced rapid growth because of
changing population structure include Japan, China and Singapore.