India, US and the China anxiety- For Delhi and Washington, the other’s China choices matter

Source: The post is based on the article “Modi-Biden meet: India, US and the China anxiety- For Delhi and Washington, the other’s China choices matter. They must address each other’s concerns” published in “The Indian express” on 8th September 2023.

Syllabus: GS2- International relation- Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests

News: The article discusses concerns in India and the US about each other possibly getting too close to China (called G2-A2 concerns). This could affect their own strong partnership. Both countries need to communicate better about their China relations to maintain trust and strengthen their alliance.

What are G2-A2 concerns?

G2-A2 concerns refer to anxieties in both India and the US regarding each other’s potential closer ties with China, potentially sidelining their bilateral partnership.


India noticed US cabinet trips to China and changes in US-China rhetoric.

The US observed India’s high-level meetings with China and India’s agreement for BRICS expansion.

Historical Context:

India recalls the US’s move towards China in 1971, feeling left out.

India believes the US didn’t do enough to deter China’s militarization of the South China Sea.

The US remembers the Sino-Indian cooperation in the 1950s, which went against US interests.

The US feels India was hesitant about joining the Quad to avoid provoking China.

Recent Events:

Commentators criticize each country’s outreach to China, viewing it as a sign of desperation or weakness.

Developments like the Trump-Xi and Modi-Xi summits between 2017-2019 added to these apprehensions.


There’s a fear that if one country gets closer to China, it may negatively impact India-US ties and constrain options in the Indo-Pacific and globally.

What can India and the US do to strengthen their partnership?

Strengthening the India-US Partnership:

No-Surprises Rule: Both should keep each other informed about their significant interactions with China. For instance, Delhi and Washington can establish a regular briefing schedule on interactions with China.

Public Messaging: Enhance public communication so that China doesn’t dominate the narrative. For example, joint press releases can clarify the shared perspectives of India and the US on crucial issues.

Focus on Trends: Pay attention to overall patterns of interaction rather than isolated incidents. Such as investing more in research to understand each other’s historical and current views on China and Asia.

Boost Non-China Partnership Drivers:

Strengthen other aspects of their relationship not solely based on China-related concerns. Like, enhancing trade, cultural exchanges, or technological collaborations.

Adopting these measures can help India and the US solidify their ties, ensuring more robust mutual trust and collaboration.

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