Source: The post is based on the article “India’s fertility rate dips, but the decline is faster in Bangladesh, Nepal” published in Business Standard on 19th January 2023.
What is the News?
India’s fertility rate has declined to below the replacement rate. But Nepal’s and Bangladesh’s fertility rates declined faster between 1990 and 2020.
What is the Replacement level of fertility?
Replacement level is the level of fertility at which a population replaces itself exactly from one generation to the next.
The United Nations(UN’s) prescribed fertility rate is 2.1 births per woman.
China’s population declined: China’s National Statistics Bureau showed that the country’s population shrank to 1.41 billion in 2022.
India’s population: If data from World Population Prospects is to be believed, then India with a population of 1.412 billion in 2022, would be the most populous country in the world.
A significant reason for this is India’s higher fertility rates or the number of children born per woman.
India’s Fertility rate data: India’s fertility rate has halved between 1990 and 2020. It has declined to 2 — a level much below the UN’s prescribed fertility rate (of 2.1 births per woman).
A rural-urban comparison shows that even though fertility rates in rural areas declined much faster between 2005-06 and 2019-21, the rural fertility rate at 2.14 was much higher than the urban rate of 1.63.