Indus water treaty

  • The Indus Waters Treaty,1960 is a water distribution treaty between India and Pakistan. It was brokered by the World Bank.
  • The Indus system comprises Indus, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej. The basin is mainly shared by India and Pakistan, with a small share for China and Afghanistan.
  • Under the Indus treaty, all the waters of three eastern rivers namely Ravi, Sutlej, and Beas were allocated to India for exclusive use.
  • On the other hand, the waters of Western rivers namely Indus, Jhelum, and Chenab were allocated to Pakistan. But India can use the water in western rivers for non-consumptive needs like irrigation, storage, and even for electricity production. Thus, India has been given the right to generate hydroelectricity through a run of the river projects on the western rivers, subject to specific criteria for design and operation.
  • Further, Pakistan also has the right to raise concerns on the design of Indian hydroelectric projects on western rivers
  • A Permanent Indus Commission was set up by the United Nations for resolving any disputes that may arise in water sharing.
  • The treaty gives India 20% of the water from the Indus River System and the rest 80% to Pakistan.
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