Kaziranga National park

News: A study conducted by Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune and some universities has found Kaziranga National park to be a net carbon emitter.

How Kaziranga National Park became net carbon emitter?

The biggest factor that makes Kaziranga national park a net emitter is its unique soil. The soil is home to a large population of bacteria that release carbon dioxide as they breathe, which adds to the carbon dioxide being emanated by other organisms, including trees.

The photosynthetic activity of trees during the monsoon decreases due to increased cloud cover. Hence, the ability of the forest to absorb carbon dioxide also decreases. The situation remains the same during the post-monsoon and winter months, making the forest a net carbon emitter.

About Kaziranga National Park

Location: It is located in the State of Assam. It is the single largest undisturbed and representative area in the Brahmaputra Valley floodplain.

UNESCO World Heritage Site: The Park was declared as a National Park in 1974. In 1985, the park was designated as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Further, it was also declared as a Tiger Reserve in 2006.

Important Bird Area: It is also recognized as an Important Bird Area by Bird Life International for the conservation of avifaunal species.

Vegetation: Due to the difference in altitude between the eastern and western areas of the park, here one can see mainly four types of vegetation’.  This includes alluvial inundated grasslands, alluvial savanna woodlands, tropical moist mixed deciduous forests, and tropical semi-evergreen forests.

Flora: Indian gooseberry, cotton tree, and elephant apple are amongst the famous trees that can be seen in the park. Also, a good variety of aquatic flora can be seen in lakes, ponds, and along the river shores.

Fauna: Along with the iconic Greater one-horned rhinoceros, the park is the breeding ground of elephants, wild water buffalo, and swamp deer. Over the time, the tiger population has also increased in Kaziranga, and that’s the reason why it was declared as Tiger Reserve in 2006.

Significance:

  • It is the house of two-thirds of the world’s great one-horned rhinoceroses (IUCN Status- Vulnerable).
  • The title Kaziranga adopts its name to Karbi, which is the name of a woman who ruled here in ancient time.
  • The entire area of Kaziranga is formed by alluvial deposits from the Brahmaputra and its tributaries.

Area under Wetland: The area under wetlands in Kaziranga has reduced from 8.5% of the total area to 6.7% over a period of 30 years till 1977.

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