Level of groundwater extraction lowest in 18 years, finds study

Source: The post is based on the article “Level of groundwater extraction lowest in 18 years, finds study” published in The Hindu on 10th November 2022.

What is the News?

Union Minister of Jal Shakti has released the Dynamic Ground Water Resource Assessment Report for the entire country for the year 2022.

About the Dynamic Ground Water Resource Assessment Report

The assessment was carried out jointly by the Central Ground Water Board (CGWB), States and Union Territories.

Such joint exercises between the CGWB and States/Union Territories were carried out earlier in 1980, 1995, 2004, 2009, 2011, 2013, 2017 and 2020.

What are the key findings of the report?

Main Source of Groundwater: The main source of replenishable ground water resources is recharge from rainfall, which contributes to nearly 61% of the total annual groundwater recharge. India receives about 119 cm. of rain annually on average with high spatial variation. 

– A major part of the country receives rainfall mainly during the South West(SW) Monsoon season, spread over the months of June to September, except in Tamil Nadu where the major contribution is from the NE monsoon during the period October– December.

Groundwater usage in India:  The total annual groundwater recharge for the entire country is 437.60 billion cubic meters(BCM).

– The analysis indicates an increase in groundwater recharge which may mainly be attributed to increasing in recharge from canal seepage, return flow of irrigation water and recharges from water bodies/tanks & water conservation structures.

Groundwater extraction in India saw an 18-year decline. The total annual groundwater extraction (as in 2022) has been assessed as 239.16 bcm.

– Out of the total 7089 assessment units in the country, 1006 units have been categorized as ‘Over-exploited’.

– There is also an improvement in groundwater conditions in 909 assessment units in the country compared with 2017 assessment data.

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