MAINS QUESTION BANK AND ANSWERS for UPSC (Subject-wise)- Part 2

Mains Questions Bank and answers for UPSC

Under this initiative, we are providing the subject wise list of questions asked under the Mains Marathon initiative. We are in the process of further developing this initiative. Very soon, we will be adding many more questions to it.


For Mains Questions Bank – Part 1Click Here


  • History | Art & Culture
  • Society
  • Geography
  • Polity
  • Governance
  • Social Issues
  • International Relations
  • Economy
  • Agriculture
  • Environment
  • Science and Tech.
  • Security and Disaster
  • Ethics
Discuss the significance of the Vaikom satyagraha and the self respect movement in modern indian history.

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To what extent globalization has influenced the core of cultural diversity in India? Explain.

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Discuss the role of women in the freedom struggle especially during the Gandhian phase.

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Discuss the contribution of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar to modern India and Constitution of India.

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“Several women poets have contributed to the Bhakti movement.” Illustrate.

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“India’s proud heritage of being one of the leading democracies in the world has taken a beating in recent times.” Examine.

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Discuss what was the most significant contribution of Kabir and Guru Nanakdev to Bhakti movement?

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“Sardar Patel’s contribution to the Indian Freedom struggle has been remarkable and incomparable.” Comment.

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Discuss how different and difficult would have been the achievement of Indian independence without Mahatma Gandhi?

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Examine the major factors that shaped the British land-revenue policy in India. How did it affect Indian society?

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Discuss the commercialization of agriculture in India during colonial rule. Discuss various consequences of agricultural commercialization.

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Discuss causes and effects of de-industrialisation in India during British period.

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“Population stabilisation efforts need to address existing socio-cultural barriers and ensure multi-sectoral participation.” Comment. 

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“Urban infrastructure is critical for development of the cities and surrounding areas.” In light of this discuss various reasons for growth of slum areas in India. Also discuss various issues associated with it.

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“Anger and intolerance are the enemies of correct understanding.” Comment.

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“Populism is a threat to democracy and national interests.” Illustrate with examples.

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Discuss various consequences of Illegal immigration in India. What are various laws in place to tackle illegal non-citizens?

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“Failure of state administration and mismanagement of water resources in urban cities hasled tounsafe and poor drinking water quality endangering lives of many.” Comment.

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Q.3) How Indian secularism is different from secularism in west? Also, Illustrate how Secularism is an ancient concept in India?

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“As globalisation gives way to Asian century and Asia takes a leading position, India could look to many of the opportunities arising out of the region’s rapid integration and shifting networks to help drive its next chapter of growth.” Comment.

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Discuss the need of bringing uniformity in civil laws. Critically analyse the the consequences of bringing such uniformity.

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“For tackling Climate change in a better way it must be an integral part to the planning of Indian cities and towns.” Comment.

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Discuss various reasons for rising incidents of mob lynching in India. Give some solutions to prevent such incidents.

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“India requires a national register for citizen’s at national level.” Critically examine.

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Critically examine the salient features and objectives of Citizenship amendment bill, 2019. Does the Citizenship (Amendment) Bill go against Article 14 of the Constitution?

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“India’s demographic dividend can turn into demographic disaster.” In light of this discuss why it is important for India to focus on demographic dividend?

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Give an account of looming water crisis situation in India. Discuss how Atal Bhujal Yojana would help in preventing water crisis situation.

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“In the absence of scientific planning and implementation, measures like Jal Shakti Abhiyan may not be successful.” Discuss in the light oflooming water crisis across India.

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Define mantle plume and explain its role in plate tectonics.

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“Strategy for water resource management requires a new approach and not the continuation of failed policies of the past.” Comment.

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“Desalination technology is not an esoteric idea. However, it only has a limited application, given the operation cost”. Discuss. What is desalination? Can desalination help India with its water crisis situation?

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‘Securing personal data is the key to making India truly digital’. In the light of this statement highlights the salient features of the Personal Data Protection Bill, 2019. Also mention the concerns raised against the bill. Suggest measures to address the same.

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Bring out the philosophy of the Indian polity as enshrined in the preamble of the Indian constitution. Also discuss various changes made to preamble since its adoption in Indian Constitution.

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Discuss the possible factors that inhibit India from enacting for its citizen a uniform civil code as provided for in the Directive Principles of State Policy.

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Discuss the role played by State Legislative Councils. How are they different from the Rajya Sabha? Also examine their usefulness for Indian states.

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The Indian Constitution has provisions for holding joint session of the two houses of the Parliament. Enumerate the occasions when this would normally happen and also the occasions when it cannot, with reasons thereof.

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Women empowerment in India needs gender budgeting. What are the requirements and status of gender budgeting in the Indian context?

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What are the important functions of the Finance Commission? Discuss the terms of reference of the 15th finance commission and various apprehensions about it.

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“The newly passed amendment to the Citizenship Act redefines the way migrants can become Indian citizens.” In light of this discuss various concerns related to it. Why such an amendment is needed?

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What are salient features of Citizenship amendment Bill, 2019? Discuss its need and significance.

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Comment on the ordinance making power of the President of India. Also discuss the various safeguards which can help to prevent possible misuse of such power.

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What is a quasi judicial body? Analyse various advantages and disadvantages of these bodies.

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“Pushing for greater autonomy for States and protecting federalism is need of the hour, if India has to emerge as a major economic super-power.”Comment.

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“Has the Governor been acting more of an ‘agent of the centre’ rather than being the ‘constitutional head of state’. Analyse in the light of recent controversies involving the post of Governor in India.

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It is imperative for citizens to strive for a perfect balance between their rights and duties in order to achieve local and national development goals. Comment.

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Discuss whether formation of new states in recent times is beneficial or not for the economy of India.

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Discussthe need and significance of a National Register for citizens in India?What are various concerns related to it?

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Discuss the role and function of election commission of India. How Election Commission ensure free and fair elections in India?

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Assess the importance of the Panchayat system in India as a part of local government. Apart from government grants, what sources the Panchayats can look out for financing developmental projects?

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As misuse of sedition laws by politicians is common which lead to abuse of human rights, do you agree that sedition laws need to be buried? Justify your answer.

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Under what circumstances can the Financial Emergency be proclaimed by the President of India? What consequences follow when such a declaration remains in force?

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“Impartiality of the Judiciary is cornerstone of any healthy democracy.” Comment.

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“Democracy is not another name of majoritarianism, on the contrary it is a system to include every voice, where thought of every person is counted.” Comment.

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“Indian sedition law has become a privilege for politicians and curse to free speech and right to dissent.” Discuss.

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“Freedom of the press is a precious privilege that no country can forgo.” Discuss the significance of above statement. Do you think Indian Media is free?

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Discuss various provisions of disqualifications under Representation of people’s Act. Do you think these provisions has helped in decriminalising Indian politics?

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Examine the doctrine of basic structure. Discuss its evolution and significance.

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What is good governance? Discuss recent findings of Good Governance Index report in India. Suggest some measures to improve the governance in Indians states.

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“There is an urgent need to reform the criminal justice system in India.” Discuss in light of recent failures of criminal justice in India. 

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How effective has the Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana been? Examine. Also, discuss its significance.

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It is said that ‘capital punishment provides neither justice nor deterrence against any crime’. Do you agree? Justify your answer. 

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Discuss the Right to Information Act’s role in fostering a more informed citizenry and an accountable government so far. What are the various concerns related RTI act?

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“Section 124A of IPC has become a tool of oppression to suppress the voice of many” Do you agree? Discuss whether it should be scrapped from India’s law book or not.

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“Effectiveness of the government system at various levels and people’s participation in the governance system are interdependent.” Discuss their relationship with each other in the context of India.

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Comment on the significance of framers union in India. What are various challenges faced by them?

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Differentiate between retributive justice and restorative justice. Discuss why restorative justice is as important as retributive justice?

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The Citizens’ Charter is an ideal instrument of organisational transparency and accountability, but it has its own limitations. Identify the limitations and suggest measures for greater effectiveness of the Citizens’ Charter.

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Almost six years after the Lokpal and Lokayukta Act, 2013 not much progress has been made in implementing various provisions of the act. Examine. Also discuss various issues involved in the functioning of lokpal.

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What are the functions of National Human Rights Commission? Examine whether National Human Rights Commission has been able to fulfill its mandate.

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Suppose the Government of India is thinking of constructing a dam in a mountain valley bond by forests and inhabited by ethnic communities. What rational policy should it resort to in dealing with unforeseen contingencies?

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Argue whether electoral bonds are an effective mechanism to conduct fair and transparent elections? Suggest some measures to improve transparency in electoral funding to political parties.

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On what grounds a people’s representative can be disqualified under the Representation of People Act, 1951? Also mention the remedies available to such person against his disqualification.

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Discuss the role and function of pressure groups in India. Do you think pressure groups in India has been able to successfully deliver on their mandate?

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Effective utilisation of public funds is crucial to meet development goals. Critically examine the reasons for under-utilisation and mis-utilisation of public funds and their implications.

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“Without any harmony and co-ordination among various institutions and bodies, a society cannot progress and live in peace.” Discuss in the light of recent brawl between Delhi police and lawyers.

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With regard to the morality of actions, one view is that means is of paramount importance and the other view is that the ends justify the means. Which view do you think is more appropriate? Justify your answer.

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What are various objectives of National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB)? Discuss its role in keeping the Indian government accountable to its people.

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“Reforms and polices which aim to weed out adverse practices often lead to disruptions and fail to achieve its objectives.” Comment.

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“Mere police reforms will be of no consequence unless simultaneous improvements are made in the prosecution, judiciary and in prisons.” Comment.

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Discuss the role of Public Accounts Committee in establishing accountability of the government to the people.

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Discuss how political interference in sports administration has led to poor performance of sports in India? Why it is important to establish accountability in sports administration in India?

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Examine the role of gram nyayalayas in dispute resolution. Discuss the effectiveness of mediation as a dispute settlement mechanism in various conflict situations.

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What are functional foods? How functional foods can help in resolving India’s malnutrition and farmer’s issues?

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A greater participation of women in police and judiciary, would help to reduce the violence against women in society. Comment.

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What are the objective and salient features of National Nutrition Mission? Discuss various challenges to National Nutrition Mission and how to tackle the same.

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According to recent, World Economic Forum’s Global Gender Gap Index 2020, the participation of women in the labour force is among the lowest in the world. What are various reasons for this. Suggest some measures to reduce gender gap in India.

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A faulty implementation of the NRC could create a human rights issue of unimaginable magnitude. Comment.

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What are various reasons for growing cancer burden in India? Suggest some measures to address the same.

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“Crime rate against Scheduled castes and scheduled tribe remains high despite of various safeguards in place.” Examine.

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Discuss various issues related to labour laws in India? Suggest some measures to resolve these issues.

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What measures have been taken by the government to create a conducive environment for the disabled community? Discuss various reasons for limited impact of such initiatives.

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What are the salient features of Pradhan Mantri Annadata Aay Sanrakshan Abhiyan? Discuss various issues related to the scheme.

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“Rising sexual abuse crime against children is a shame for whole nation and threat to future of the country.” In light of this discuss the need and significance of Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (Amendment) Act, 2019.

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Discuss various initiatives taken so far by the Government towards gender equality in India. Why such initiatives had limited impact?

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“The UN development report indicate that prejudices and social beliefs obstruct gender equality.” In light of this discuss what measures should be taken to reduce the gender inequalities in the Indian society? Answer

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“Despite its potential, the mid-day meal scheme has been unable to make a transformative impact.” Discuss.

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‘Despite implementation of various programmes for eradication of poverty by the government in India, poverty is still existing’. Explain by giving reasons.

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“There are many structural flaws in Indian higher education system.” Examine.

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4.Infant mortality rates in India are still one of the highest in the world with significant regional variations. Elaborate.

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Comment on the rising incidents of sex crimes against women in Indian society. What are various laws and safeguards available against such crimes in India?

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Discuss the progress made so far in campaign against AIDS in India. What are various government measures taken against AIDS and how to tackle it further?

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What do you understand by ‘creamy layer’? Examine the feasibility of extending the concept of creamy layer to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in India.

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Discuss the features of Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana. How it would help in ensuring health of Indian citizens especially poor?

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What are salient features of Motor Vehicle Act, 2019? Do you think it would help in reducing ever rising number of road accidents?

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Discuss various provisions of The Transgender Persons(protection of rights) Bill 2019. Do you agree Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill, 2019 undermines the rights of the individuals it seeks to protect?

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In light of recent NSO’s survey findings on open defecation, critically examine whether Swachh Bharat Mission is a success or failure?

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“Inclusiveness and equity are very important characteristics of a good public institution.”In light of this discuss the need and significance of subsidies in higher education. What are related concerns?

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“Labour reforms are much needed for Indian progress towards a $5 trillion economy.” In light of this discuss the changes made in The Industrial Relations Code Bill, 2019? What are the issues related to the changes?

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“India’s female labour force participation rate ranks much low and is declining.” What are various reasons for low labour force participation of women in India? Suggest some measures to correct the labour market’s gender skew.

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“While health outcomes have greatly improved, tribal communities still lag behind.” Examine.

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“Maternity benefits, are veryimportant for a working women but the vast majority of Indian women, are left on their own and are unable to enjoy present maternity benefits.”Discuss.

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Despite Consistent experience of High growth, India still goes with the lowest indicators of human development. Examine the issues that make balanced and inclusive development elusive.

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“A data protection law is needed more than ever in the recent times.” Do you agree?

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Discuss the need and significance of Code of wages, 2019. How will it impact the Indian economy?

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“The recent National Education Policy document, despite its lacunae, is a vast improvement over earlier education policies.” Comment.

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“India is home to 77 million diabetics, second highest in the world.” In light of this discuss various causes and preventive measures required against diabetes.

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Assess the need and significance of strengthening intra-BRICS trade for Indian economy. What should be done to boost Indian trade with other BRICS countries?

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“Anaemia among men in India is an important public health problem which is widely ignored.” Discuss.

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“Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is considered one of the most significant challenges the world faces today.” Discuss.

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Discuss the key features of draft social security code, 2019. Mention various flaws in the draft social security code, 2019.

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Q.1) “According to a recent report, maternal death rate in India is declining.” Discuss what led to such a decline? Also suggest some measures needed to further reduce the Maternal Mortality rate towards Sustainable development goal.

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“Even as malnutrition accounted for millions of deaths in children under the age of five in India, there is issue of rising obesity in schoolchildren in many States.” Discuss.

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In light of rise in child sexual abuse, discuss the need and challenge of providing sexual education to children. Also, mention role of family, school and teachers in preventing child sexual abuse in the society.

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“The poor are not only deprived of access to material benefits, but are robbed of the opportunity to participate in social, economic and cultural transactions from a plane of equality.” Comment.

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“Revival of the traditional Indian systems of medicine, which comprises Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy (AYUSH), along with strengthening of modern medicine system will help in making healthcare system more accessible and affordable.” Discuss.

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Is the National Commission for Women able to strategise and tackle the problems that women face at both public and private spheres? Give reasons in support of your answer.

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Why indentured labour was taken by the British from India to their colonies? Have they been able to preserve their cultural identity over there?

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“According to All India Survey on Higher Education 2018-19 share of enrolled minorities still continue to be under-represented given their share of the total population.” Discuss various reasons for such under-representation. Suggest some measures to improve minority enrolment in higher education.

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“The basic human rights cannot be denied on the basis of gender differences, religion or on the basis of ‘race’.” Comment.

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Q.3) Discuss various reasons for rise in crimes against certain sections of people in India. Argue wether it is a global phenomenon or confined to India only.

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“Appeasement of castes whether upper or lower by politicians for vote bank politics has led to strengthening of caste system in India.” Comment.

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“The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace Act, 2013 has failed to protect women from sexual harassment at their place of work.” In light of this discuss various reasons for the failure of state and the law to safeguard women at their place of work.

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“Recently released Health Ministry’s Comprehensive National Nutrition survey showed a direct correlation between the nutritional status of children and their mothers’ education.” In light of this discuss the importance and issues related to women education in India.

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Discuss why just providing subsidised food is not suffice to tackle hunger issue in India? What else need to be done to end hunger problem in India?

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“In the era of high competition, reservation in jobs and higher education need to be rationalised.” Comment.

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“India requires multiple interventions to prevent mental health disorders among adolescents.” Discuss.

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“The recent success of women in almost every sector especially in sports, reflects that women are no less than men.” Comment.

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Discuss various challenges in increasing access to education to students from deprived backgrounds? How these challenges can be removed?

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How the removal of gender issues and women empowerment can reduce the economic inequalities in India? Discuss.

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Discuss the role of higher education institutes like IITs, IIMs in achieving $5 trillion dollar economic goal.

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With India and the USA coming closer to each other in the international arena, new challenges have emerged in India-Iran relations. Discuss.

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“Growing Chinese presence in Indo-Pacific region demands a proactive Indian foreign policy.” Comment. 

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“Demographic Dividend in India will remain only theoretical unless our manpower becomes more educated, aware, skilled and creative.” In light of this discuss the measures taken by the government to enhance the capacity of our population to be more productive and employable? 

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Discuss various reasons behind Brexit. How Brexit would impact India?

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What do you understand by the term ‘Asian century’? Discuss the importance of India-China relation in realising Asian century.

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What do you understand by ‘trade corridor’? Examine whetherKartarpur corridor should be convertedinto a trade corridor between India and Pakistan.

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“The foreign policy of India has changed from ‘non-alignment’ to ‘multi-alignment’ in recent times. Examine.

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“India-Nepal relations has been deteriorated in recent times and need to be strengthened.”Critically examine.

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India and USA are the two large democracies. Examine the basic tenets on which the two political systems are based.

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“Free Trade Agreements with other countriesdo not guarantee economic growth or boost exports to other countries.” Critically examine.

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“To put India-Pakistan relations on a positive trajectory more confidence-building measures and steps like Kartarpur corridor are needed.” Critically evaluate the statement.

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Q.1) “BRICS is becoming a magnet for many emerging economies.” In light of this discuss the significance of BRICS as a pillar of the emerging, fairer poly-centric world order.

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Examine the strategic significance of Indo-Pacific region for India. Also, discuss how India should tackle Chinese dominance in Indo-Pacific region?

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How would the recent phenomena of protectionism and currency manipulations in world trade affect macroeconomic stability of India?

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“Maritime security and connectivity in Indo-Pacific region are the priority areas that need to be focused for India’s economic growth and sustainable development.” Comment.

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“India’s relations with Saudi Arabia are one of the most important bilateral relationships in its extended neighbourhood.” Evaluate.

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“With rising tensions and recent conditions of destabilisation in Afghanistan India need to figure out how to secure its interests in Afghanistan where it has a significant footprint.” Discuss.

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“India’s foreign policy is undergoing a series of fundamental transformations in terms of its underlying narratives and processes.”. Discuss.

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“Long-held assumptions and alignments rooted in the legacies of colonialism and the ideology of the Cold War are making way for new configurations and partnerships.” In light of above statement discuss the need of reforming NAM under current geo-political realities.

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“The rise of Asia represents the beginnings of a shift in the balance of economic power in the world and the future will be shaped partly by how Asia exploits the opportunities and meets the challenges.” In light of this statement, discuss the role of India in realising Asian Century.

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“Trade strengthens peace and there needs to be a revised strategy towards restarting cross-Line of Control trade.” Comment.

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What do you understand by the term Brexit? What are various causes and possible impact of Brexit on India?

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Q.4) What are the key areas of reform if the WTO has to survive in the present context of ‘Trade War’, especially keeping in mind the interest of India?

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Examine the issue of quota reforms in International Monetary Reforms. Discuss how this asymmetric power distribution in IMF has impacted India’s interests?

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“India must not trade away its national data rights at the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership negotiations.” Comment

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Analyse various area of convergence where India and the U.S. can work closely in reshaping the global order. How both countries can ensure better coordination among these areas of convergence?

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“Rivers have no boundaries and no regions.” In light of this statement discuss various consequences of stopping river sharing to Pakistan. Do you think it is morally correct to stop sharing of river water to Pakistan?

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“To achieve its economic goals and to realise ‘Asian Century’ India need to work with the other civilisational power, like China.” Discuss.

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“China-India relations transcend the bilateral dimension and assume global and strategic significance.” Discuss.

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“Informal summits are seen as a platform for trust-building exercises.” In light of this statement critically examine the relevance and success of such informal summits in resolving bilateral issues.

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“In a multi-polar world, it is very difficult for India to balance between rival nations.” In light of this discuss how India should manage its interests in a multi-polar world?

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“There is scope for India­ Bangladesh ties to move to the next level, based on cooperation, coordination and consolidation.” Comment.

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“Despite of deep ties, India and Sri Lanka have seen some unpleasantness in bilateral relations in contemporary times.”. Discuss.

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In order to arrest slowdown in the economy, India needs to make their policies people-centric rather than growth-centric. Comment.

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The current economic slowdown is a result of both cyclical and structural factors. Comment.

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Discuss the objectives of Ujjwal DISCOM Assurance Yojana (UDAY). Critically examine its success and failures. 

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“Indian economy is undergoing a Four Balance Sheet (FBS) problem”. Examine. Also suggest some measures.

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What do you understand by the term disinvestment? Critically examine the policy of disinvestment in India.

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What is ‘digital divide’? What are its implications? Also suggest measures to bridge the digital divide in India.

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Critically analyse the progress made in resolving stressed assets since the enactment of Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC). Suggest some measures to improve it further.

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“The efficiency of the Indian railways has dropped to its lowest in last decade, according to recent CAG report.” In light of this discuss whether privatisation of railways would help increasing the efficiency of Indian railways?

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“The draft rules to the Wages Act, a law expected to provide economic and social justice, will only exploit workers further.”Comment.

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Discuss various factors that has led to rise in india’s ease of doing business ranking. Do you think this would help drive Indian economic growth?

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Discuss the need and significance of draft e-Commerce Rules, 2019 in light of increasing tentacles of e-Commerce in Indian market.

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What is the significance of Industrial Corridors in India? Identifying industrial corridors, explain their main characteristics.

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Discuss various challenges and significance of financial inclusion for Indian economy? Also mention steps taken by Indian government towards financial inclusion.

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“There is a need to build a “defence industrial ecosystem” in India.” In light of this discuss the need and significance of establishing a Defence Industrial Corridor in India.

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What are various reasons for the rise in cases of bank frauds in last decade in India? Also discuss the need of bringing reforms in banking governance and impact of such frauds.

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Discuss the Intermediaries Guidelines (Amendment) Rules issued in 2018. Why these rules are important?

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What are the various reasons for slower economic growth? Do you think recent tax sops announced by government are sufficient to arrest the slowdown?

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Defining blue revolution. Explain the problems and strategies for pisciculture development in India.

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“Strengthening the manufacturing industry and increasing domestic demand are key imperatives for job creation and inclusive growth.” Discuss.

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“With economic growth, the demand for power in India is only going to increase further.” In light of this discuss how India should fulfill its energy needs without jeopardising environmental health?

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Critically analyse the need and various fallouts of privatisation of Indian Railways. Do you think such a move will further displace the poorer sections?

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Discuss the potential of rural tourism in India. What measures and precautions should be taken to promote rural tourism?

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Discuss salient features of Motor Vehicle amendment act, 2019. Critically analyse its objectives and significance.

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What are the impediments in marketing and supply chain management in developing the food processing industry in India? Can e-commerce help in overcoming this bottleneck?

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How has golden rice been developed? Write a note on its importance in human nutrition.

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Comment on the significance of e-NAM initiative as a tool to resolve some of the agricultural issues in India.

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What is water-use efficiency? Describe the role of micro-irrigation in increasing the water-use efficiency.

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Discuss various methods used by the Farmers organizations to influence the policy-makers in India. How effective are these methods?

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What are the salient features of the draft Seed Bill, 2019? Discuss various concerns related to the bill.

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Discuss the issue related to stubble burning. How co-operative federalism can help in solving this issue?

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“There is need to move away from the present ‘staple grain fundamentalism,’ of Public Distribution System (PDS), to a more diversified food basket, with an emphasis on coarse grains.” Comment.

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What do you understand by Integrated Farming System (IFS)? How far is Integrated Farming System (IFS) helpful in sustaining agricultural production.

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Q.4) Elaborate the policy taken by the Government of India to meet the challenges of the food processing sector.

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Explain various types of revolutions, took place in Agriculture after Independence in India. How these revolutions have helped in poverty alleviation and food security in India?

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“PM-KISAN scheme will not only lead to welfare of farmers, but can act as an important tool for India’s economic growth.” Discuss.

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What do you mean by Minimum Support Price (MSP)? How will MSP rescue the farmers from the low income trap?

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“Populist measures like highly subsidised food and goods although help poor but is an unsustainable policy measure and not a permanent solution.” Comment.

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What is Zero Budget Natural Farming? Critically examine whether Zero Budget Natural Farming should be included into agricultural policies or not?

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Discuss the issue of land acquisition as a major impediment in the development process. What steps should be taken to make land acquisition quick and easy?

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“Any long-term solution to the problem of unemployment to which the slowing growth of the economy is related must start with agricultural production.” Comment.

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Discuss the causes of depletion of mangroves and explain their importance in maintaining coastal ecology.

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“Climate change and unprecedented floods resulting from cloud bursts have facilitated the introduction of aquatic invasive alien species into new habitats in India.” Discuss the threat posed by invasive alien species on native ecosystem and how it should be tackled.

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“The problem with global environmental policies is that the climate treaties consider and focus on symptoms, rather than the cause.” Elaborate.

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What are ‘marine heatwaves’? Discuss what causes such waves and its ecological impact.

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“India could use green technologies to galvanise its faltering economy, create new jobs and become a climate leader.”Comment.

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What do you understand by Agro-biodiversity ? HowAgro-biodiversity can help in reducing country’shunger problem?

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Coastal sand mining, whether legal or illegal, poses one of the biggest threats to our environment. Analyse the impact of sand mining along the Indian coasts, citing specific examples.

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“Environmental migration is real and will increase multifold in the near future.” In light of this discuss the impact of increasing environmental migration in India. How India should prepare itself to face it?

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Discuss the causes of depletion of mangroves and explain their importance in maintaining coastal ecology.

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“The feeling of being overwhelmed by the challenges of climate change and the fear about the state of the environment has led to eco-anxiety.” Comment.

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“Paddy stubble burning in states neighbouring Delhi, is being seen as one of the reasons for the smog in the national capital. Change to a less water-guzzling crop will help address stubble burning.” Do you agree?

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“Given that South Asia is one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change and most of the countries share ecological zones, borders and culture, advance preparation for migration is needed.” Comment.

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“With rising pollution levels in Indian cities, India needs a Clean Air Act and an autonomous new body to enforce it.” Comment.

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“In recent years, attack on stubble burning has increased due to its contribution to rising air pollution.” In light of this discuss how stubble burning cause air pollution. Suggest some measures to tackle stubble burning menace in India.

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“An effective response to prevent climate change and reduce air pollution is to make investment in urban mobility.” Discuss.

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“Failure of government to control air pollution menace is largely due to wrong policy measures and poor implementation of policies at ground level.” Comment.

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What is wetland? Explain the Ramsar concept of ‘wise use’ in the context of wetland conservation. Cite two examples of Ramsar sites from India.

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Examine the need and role of a robust coastal ecosystem in India’s economic growth and security.

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What is OLED technology? How it is different from LED? Discuss its various uses.

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Explain how vaccines work? Discuss the significance of vaccination and mention various challenges regarding vaccination in India.

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What is ‘virtual autopsy’? Discuss various advantages and disadvantages of virtual autopsy.

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What are liquid crystals? Discuss in brief the characteristic useful features of liquid crystals and their great range of applications in diverse fields.

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What is antimicrobial resistance? Discuss the issues around antimicrobial resistance in light of the recent government ban on colistin in the poultry industry.

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“Although altruistic organ donation is important to save precious life, illegal organ trade is a threat to any society.”Discuss.

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“ISRO has been one of the best performing Public Sector Undertakings in India. However, an involvement with the private sector can aid high-technology manufacturing in the space sector.” Comment.

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What is India’s plan to have its own space station and how will it benefit our space programme?

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“India had emerged as a hub of commercial surrogacy for couples in recent times, benefiting especially poor.” In light of this critically examine ‘The Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2019’.

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Discussthe need and significance of NATGRID project?What are various concerns related to NATGRID?

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4.Examine the role of biotechnology in achieving food security in India. What are various challenges faced by biotechnology sector in India?

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Discuss the significance of Kerala’s K-fon project. Do you think such policy should be adopted at national level?

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India has achieved remarkable successes in unmanned space missions including the Chandrayaan and Mars Orbiter Mission, but has not ventured into manned space mission, both in terms of technology and logistics. Explain critically.

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Discuss the potential application and significance of NavIC (Navigation in Indian Constellation).

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Differentiate between 5g and 4g technologies. Discuss various advantages of 5g technology.

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Give an account of the growth and development of nuclear science and technology in India. What is the advantage of fast breeder reactor programme in India?

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What do you understand by the term ‘genome sequencing’? Discuss its Importance and associated challenges wrt genome sequencing in India.

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What is India’s plan to have its own space station and how will it benefit our space programme?

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Explain what is quantum computing? Discuss its potential application in various fields.

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Discuss various measures undertaken by the government to curb and control black money. To what extent have these measures been able to address the problem of black money in India.

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What is naxalism? Discuss various reasons of naxalism and government efforts to root out naxalism from the country.

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“Protection of Privacy is must in the age of rising cyber crimes.” In light of this critically examine salient features of the ‘Data Protection Bill, 2019’.

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“The increasing influence of social media in global politics and national elections demand strong measures.”Comment

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“The Chief of Defence Staff should not become another interposed level between the Government and the service chiefs.” Comment.

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Discuss the role and mandate of National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) in disaster management.

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“The linkage of hundreds of millions of the Aadhaar Card to social media accounts serves no useful purpose.”Comment.

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What is difference between a storm and a cyclone? Discuss various conditions that lead to formation of cyclones in tropical region.

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“To showcase itself as a legitimate power in cyberspace, India have to shed its piecemeal approach about cybersecurity.” Examine critically.

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“Recent incidents like Pegasus snooping scandal, expose the vulnerability and threat of cyber-crimes to India” Comment.

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“A recent study reported that 36 million Indians face flood risk due to climate change.” In light of this discuss how India should prepare itself to mitigate the threat of disasters posed by climate change?

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Discuss the threat of Left Wing Extremism (LWE) to India. Briefly explain the Government of India’s approach to counter the challenges posed by LWE.

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“In the world of intelligence, information is the principal currency.” In this context illustrate how information plays an important role in security of any nation?

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Describe various measures taken in India for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) before and after signing ‘Sendai Framework for DRR (2015-2030)’. How is this framework different from ‘Hyogo Framework for Action, 2005’?

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“Media is a very important organ to fight terrorism.” In light of this discuss the critical role media need to play in fight against the terrorism?

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Examine the economic and strategic significance of border area development for India. What are various challenges related to border area management and development?

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Discuss the issue of droughts and flood cycle in India. How better infrastructure for water management can help in preventing frequent droughts and flood?

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“The claim that there can be a neat insulation of internal issues of a country from global concerns is antithetical to the rationale of all global institutions.” In light of discuss how India should tackle Pakistan’s false narratives on Jammu and Kashmir at various global platforms.

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Honesty as a policy always comes with a price. The path of honesty, like dharma, is straight yet seldom simple. It often turns out to be tortuous, consumes more energy, sometimes even damaging the vehicle because of unfavourable road conditions. The honest, however, go on regardless, perhaps driven by an inner force that borders on recklessness. Elaborate. Discuss the importance of honesty in civil services.

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What do you understand by public service? List out the principles of Public Life as recommended by the Nolan Committee in this context.

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What is meant by constitutional morality? How does one uphold constitutional morality? Discuss its importance in a public services. 

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What do you understand by probity in governance? Based on your understanding of the term, suggest measures for ensuring probity in government.

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“Non-performance of duty by a public servant is a form of corruption”. Do you agree with this view? Justify your answer.

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What is meant by the term ‘constitutional morality’? How does one uphold constitutional morality?

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“Ministers at both the Central and State levels should follow a model code of conduct which in turn would ensure democratic accountability.” Comment.

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One of the tests of integrity is complete refusal to be compromised. Explain with reference to a real life example.

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Q.2) “The ‘systematic failure’ to address the needs of patients contributes to a higher mortality.” Comment.

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“Economics concerned solely with wealth and profits has led to un-ethical practices and climate change.” In light of this statement discuss the need of adopting ethical considerations into business behaviour.

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“The power to transform the world flows from the collective non-violent energies of ordinary men and women.” Comment.

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What is mean by public interest? What are the principles and procedures to be followed by the civil servants in public interest?

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What do you understand by voice of conscience? How voice of conscience can help in right decision making?

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“In the era of intolerance and polarisation, forgiveness and compassion are much needed values.” Comment.

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