MAINS (Subject-Wise) QUESTION BANK

Mains Questions Bank and Answers For UPSC

Under this initiative, we are providing the subject wise list of questions asked under the Mains Marathon initiative. We are in the process of further developing this initiative. Very soon, we will be adding many more questions to it.

UPSC Mains GS-1 Previous years question bank Click here


  • History | Art & Culture
  • Society
  • Geography
  • Polity
  • Governance
  • Social Issues
  • International Relations
  • Economy
  • Agriculture
  • Science & Tech
  • Security and Disaster
  • Ethics
  • Examine the role of Bismarck in state-building in Germany.
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  • What are the contributions of Raja Ravi Varma to Indian art? Elaborate.
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  • Did the Government of India Act, 1935 lay down a federal constitution? Discuss.
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  • What are the major legal initiatives by India since Independence addressing discrimination against Scheduled Tribes (STs)?
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  • Discuss how art and literature influenced India’s freedom struggle?
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  • Discuss various land reforms in India before and after independence.
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  • Elaborate on the role of Subhash Chandra Bose in India’s struggle for independence.
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  • Buddhism played an important role in spreading Indian culture across the globe in ancient times. Elaborate.
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  • Write about the major teachings of Swami Vivekananda. Discuss its relevance in the present time.
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  • Analyse the elements of urban civilization in the Harappan Culture. What factors were responsible for their decline?
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  • Discuss the contribution of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad to pre-and post-independent India.
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  • Explain various types of revolutions, took place in Agriculture after Independence in India. How have these revolutions helped in poverty alleviation and food security in India?
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  • The recent rise in communal disharmony and intolerance is a threat to Indian plural democracy. Comment.
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  • The power-sharing under the Sixth Schedule of the Indian Constitution which was expected to be the panacea of the ethnic-nationalist identity issues in the Northeastern States has failed to do so. Examine.
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  • Discuss various opportunities and challenges of demographic dividend in India.
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  • What is secularism? Discuss various features of the Indian concept of secularism.
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  • Discuss various reasons for the high incidence of domestic violence in India. Suggest some measures to prevent it.
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  • Discuss various challenges in the implementation of the Uniform Civil Code in India.
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  • Discuss India’s policy on refugees. How do you think India should react to the Rohingya crisis?
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  • What do you understand by Stereotyping? Critically examine why stereotyping is so common in society today.
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  • What is de-globalization? Discuss its consequences and impact on India.
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  • What is mob-lynching? What are the various reasons for the rise in mob-lynching incidents in India? Suggest some measures to prevent mob-lynching.
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  • How globalization has led to the reduction of employment in the formal sector of the Indian economy? Is increased informalisation detrimental to the development of the country?
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  • The spread of dengue in India has been related to unplanned urbanization, changes in environmental factors, and a host of other factors. Elaborate.
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  • What do you understand by the term radicalization? What are the various reasons for growing radicalization in society? Discuss the consequences and measures needed.
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  • The recent Citizenship Amendment Act has a significant impact on India’s secular image with deeper foreign policy implications. Do you agree?
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  • Discuss the need and importance of preserving India’s linguistic diversity. What measures are needed for the same?
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  • What is the Demographic dividend? Argue whether the Indian demographic dividend is turning into a demographic disaster or not?
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  • Discuss the possible factors that inhibit India from enacting for its citizen a uniform civil code as provided for in the Directive Principles of State Policy.
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  • What is Polar Vortex and why is the ozone depletion in the Arctic different from that of the Antarctic?
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  • What factors are responsible for the origin and modification of ocean currents? Explain how ocean current currents affect the climate of surrounding regions.
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  • What is red snow? What causes red snow? Discuss various concerns over red snow in Antarctica.
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  • A new study reveals that climate change leads to more violence against women. In light of this, discuss the impact of climate change on women's rights.
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  • What are the favorable conditions for the formation of corals? Analyse the impact of global warming on corals.
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  • Despite several measures to reduce the vulnerability of climate-induced disasters, the farm sector and farmers continue to suffer losses. Discuss various reasons for this and suggest some measures.
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  • Give an account of the coral reef In India. Why are coral reefs so important? Discuss various methods of coral restoration.
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  • What is the Indian Ocean Dipole? What are its characteristic features? Discuss its impact on the Indian monsoon.
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  • With a coastline expanding around 7500 Km India needs to replicate the successes in space exploration to the oceans as well. Discuss the need and importance of ocean exploration for India.
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  • Discuss the causes of depletion of mangroves and explain their importance in maintaining coastal ecology.
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  • Give an account of the looming water crisis situation in India. Discuss how Atal Bhujal Yojana would help in preventing water crisis situation.
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  • Briefly enlist the constitutional provisions related to tribunals in India. Critically analyze the role of tribunals in the Indian judicial system.
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  • It is argued that the internet should be regarded as an essential service and access to it as a fundamental right. Discuss.
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  • Discuss various features of Indian secularism. Also, mention various threats to secular democracy in India.
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  • Discuss whether Death penalty is a solution towards ending violence against women or not.
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  • An independent judiciary is of critical importance, as it provides checks and balances in a political democracy. Critically examine.
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  • The elements of conflict and discord are common to Union Territories with elected legislatures in India. In light of this, discuss various reasons for creating Union Territories in India and what should be done to prevent such conflicts.
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  • Elaborate the process of legislation in the Indian Parliament for an ordinary bill. How is a money bill different from an ordinary bill?
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  • Article 51 A of our constitution which deals with fundamental duties makes it a duty of every citizen to develop a Scientific Temper. In light of this, discuss the progress made by Indians towards inculcating a scientific temper.
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  • Tracing the evolution of basic structure doctrine in India highlights its salient features.
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  • What is John Stuart Mill’s idea on freedom of thought and expression? Also discuss Mill’s views on representative democracy.
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  • ‘Right to self-identification is a part of the right to life under Article 21 of the Constitution’. In light of this critically examine various provisions of Transgender (Protection of Rights) Act, 2019.
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  • What do you understand by the term ‘right to due process’? Discuss its significance in a democracy.
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  • None of the above (NOTA) system although enables voters ‘right not to vote’ but is toothless in spirit. Comment.
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  • What is the difference between fundamental duties and legal duties? Why are the fundamental duties as important as legal duties?
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  • An independent and integrated judiciary is the basic pillar of parliamentary democracy. Comment.
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  • Comment on the relevance of Directive Principles of State Policy in an era of liberalization and globalization.
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  • What are the issues related to urban local bodies in India? Suggest measures to strengthen urban local bodies in India.
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  • Critically examine the role of media as a watchdog in a democracy.
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  • Despite the constitutional mandate, the inter-state council has not come of age. Discuss
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  • What is a quasi-judicial body? Explain with the help of concrete examples.
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  • In light of various controversies, critically examine the role of speaker in Parliamentary Democracy.
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  • What is cooperative federalism?  Discuss various roadblocks to cooperative federalism in India. How can it be strengthened in India?
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  • Freedom of expression enshrined under Article 19 (1) of the Constitution is not an absolute right; it comes with safeguards outlined under Article 19 (2). What are these safeguards? Discuss their need and significance.
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  • Explain the pardoning powers of the President. How is it different from the Governor’s pardoning power?
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  • Examine the role of the Supreme Court as the final interpreter and guardian of the Indian Constitution.
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  • In a democratic polity the fundamental rights and duties of citizens are correlated. Comment in the Indian context.
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  • Discuss the significance of Article 131 of the Indian constitution. Can States challenge the validity of central laws? Examine.
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  • What are parliamentary standing committees? Discuss their need and significance in Parliamentary democracy.
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  • What is quasi-federalism? Is India a quasi-federal state?
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  • Access to the Internet must be recognized as a fundamental right to free speech, basic freedoms, and the right to life. Do you agree? Justify.
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  • Bring out the philosophy of the Indian polity as enshrined in the preamble of the Indian constitution. Also, discuss various changes made to the preamble since its adoption in the Indian Constitution.
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  • Discuss the need and significance of police reforms in the recent context of rising in crime.
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  • What are Lok Adalats? Why were they established? Discuss the role of Lok Adalats and their limitations.
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  • Discuss the structure, functioning, and objective of the ‘Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights’ (OHCHR).
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  • Data from the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) show that the number of sedition cases filed has gone up every year in the last four years, only four cases actually resulted in a conviction. In light of this, discuss the usefulness of the sedition law.
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  • Discuss the role of tribunals in delivering justice. Also, critically examine the ‘Tribunal, Appellate Tribunal and other Authorities, Rules, 2020’.
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  • Discuss the structure, powers and limitations of the National Human Rights Commission.
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  • Discuss various reasons for the prevalence of corruption in the implementation of welfare programs. Suggest some measures to reduce it.
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  • Government intervention, sometimes though well-intended, often ends up undermining the ability of the markets and leads to outcomes opposite to those intended. Illustrate.
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  • What is Red Tapism? Discuss its consequences and suggest some measures to reduce it.
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  • “Traditional bureaucratic structure and culture have hampered the process of socio-economic development in India.” Comment.
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  • Discuss in brief the role of the National Commission of Women. Do you think it is a toothless organization?
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  • Critically examine the effectiveness of electoral bonds to make Indian elections more transparent. What other reforms are needed to make the Indian election process more fair.
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  • What do you understand by the term ‘participatory democracy’? How important is the participation of people in a democratic setup?
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  • Discuss various provisions of disqualifications under the Representation of the people’s Act. Do you think these provisions have helped in decriminalizing Indian politics?
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  • In the coming decade, India’s cities need to focus on governance and sustainable development. In light of this, discuss various reasons for the poor performance of urban local bodies in India. What should be done to improve urban local governance?
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  • Discuss the importance of NGOs in India’s development process. Do you think present legal and regulatory mechanisms are adequate for the efficient working of NGOs?
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  • Discuss various provisions of Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana’ (SAGY). What are the various challenges in realizing the goals of this scheme?
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  • Discuss the role of CAG (Comptroller and Auditor General) as an anti-corruption body.
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  • What is good governance? Discuss recent findings of the Good Governance Index report in India. Suggest some measures to improve governance in Indians states.
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  • Discuss how focusing public policy on bio-fortification, sanitation, and women’s education can resolve India’s malnutrition problem.
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  • In the recent event of coronavirus epidemics, there is an urgent need for effective social security measures in place. Discuss.
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  • What does a pandemic mean? How is it different from the terms ‘epidemic’ and ‘endemic’? Illustrate with an example.
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  • What do you understand by the term ‘social justice’? Explain why it is imperative for a society to promote social justice.
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  • Give an account of recent steps taken by the government to improve the Indian healthcare system.
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  • What is ‘One Health’? Discuss its need and significance in the context of rising zoonotic infections.
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  • Discuss the importance and limitations of Part IV of the Indian Constitution.
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  • Health budgetary allocation must go up if India is to prepare for an unpredictable epidemic. Comment.
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  • Increasing the number of women recruits alone will not be enough; institutional changes are also important. Comment.
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  • Indian public schools suffer from poor infrastructure facilities, especially in rural areas. Comment.
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  • Discuss the salient features of Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Rules, 2020.
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  • Give an account of progress made by India in improving gender equality in the education system. Mention various government efforts towards women's education in India.
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  • Discuss various issues in the Indian higher education system. Suggest some measures to improve it.
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  • Discuss the need for and significance of skill development among women in India. What measures have been taken by the government for the same?
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  • Discuss the role of the National Commission for Scheduled Castes to curb violence against Dalits.
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  • What is Integrated Nutrient Management (INM)? Discuss various advantages and Constraints in the Adoption of the INM System.
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  • Examine the progress made so far by India in achieving the Sustainable Development Goal of reducing infant mortality.
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  • Involving women in the economy is not a social cause, rather it is a source of efficiency gains and economic growth. Comment.
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  • Despite the law in place to prevent manual scavenging, it still persists in India. Discuss various reasons for it.
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  • What do you understand by the term ‘what are anthropometric failures’? Discuss why despite various efforts, India continues to suffer from some form of anthropometric failures.
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  • The traditional Indian systems of medicine like Ayurveda, Homeopathy and Unani can provide for a sustainable and more affordable healthcare system. Elaborate.
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  • Hunger and Poverty are the biggest challenges for good governance in India still today. Evaluate how far Indian governments have progressed in dealing with these humongous problems. Suggest measures for improvement.
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  • Critically examine salient features of Medical Termination of Pregnancy (Amendment) Bill, 2020.
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  • Critically examine various provisions of the Medical Termination of Pregnancy (Amendment) Bill, 2020. Do you think it will enable women’s right to health?
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  • Discuss the issue of rising in suicidal deaths among Indian youth. Suggest some measures to prevent such tendencies among Indian youth.
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  • What do you understand by manual scavenging? Why does it still persist in India? Do you agree that state governments have failed to stop manual scavenging altogether?
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  • Do the government’s schemes for up-lifting vulnerable and backward communities by protecting required social resources for them, lead to their exclusion in establishing businesses in urban economies? Examine.
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  • What are the various malpractices in the medical and healthcare system in India? Discuss its consequences.
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  • What are self-help groups? Discuss various socio-cultural hurdles faced by Self Help Groups (SHGs) in promoting increased participation in development programs.
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  • Recent NCRB report has shown a rise in crimes against women over the years. Discuss various reasons for this. Suggest some measures to improve the situation.
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  • What is the importance of good early childhood education in child development? Discuss various provisions regarding primary education in the draft National Education Policy.
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  • What are the reasons for the high child mortality rate in India? Suggest some measures to control child mortality in India.
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  • Discuss the reasons behind the success of Swachh Bharat mission. How the success of this campaign against open-defecation can act as a model for other schemes and policies?
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  • Poor sanitation is a major reason for the poor health of the population in Indian cities. Elaborate. Also, suggest some measures to improve the situation.
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  • What are functional foods? How functional foods can help in resolving India’s malnutrition and farmer’s issues?
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  • Why is the US adamant on the redefinition of ‘developing country’ status in WTO?
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  • What is WHO’s funding process and why has the US withdrawn its contribution?
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  • What do you understand by the term ‘diaspora diplomacy’? Discuss the usefulness and limitations of ‘diaspora diplomacy’.
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  • Discuss the potential and issues of SAARC as an organization to emerge as a successful model of cooperation among nations in a region.
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  • Discuss the strategic significance of Afghanistan for India. Also, discuss various implications of the recent Afghanistan deal for India.
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  • Discuss India’s policy towards Afghanistan. Why is peace in Afghanistan important for India?
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  • India needs to engage with its neighbors for the realization of its global ambitions. Comment.
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  • Discuss India’s concept of Indo-Pacific. Why the Indo-Pacific region has strategic significance for India?
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  • What are various roadblocks to India-EU Free Trade Agreement? How these roadblocks can be removed?
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  • Discuss various features of India’s Neighbourhood First’ policy.
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  • Critically examine the impact of tagging of India as a developed nation by the United States Trade Representative (USTR).
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  • How deeper cooperation between the United States and India in trade can help India achieve a $5 trillion economic status?
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  • Discuss the role and mandate of the International Maritime Organization. Discuss its strategic importance for Indian maritime interests.
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  •  Indian Ocean Region (IOR) is important for Indian security. In light of this, discuss India’s policy of ‘Security and Growth for All in the Region’ (SAGAR) for IOR islands.
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  • Brexit provides an opportunity for both Britain and India to work for common interests and resolving various issues. Comment.
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  • Discuss various issues in the Indo-Australian relationship. How bilateral relations among the two nations can be strengthened?
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  • Assess the need and significance of strengthening intra-BRICS trade for the Indian economy. What should be done to boost Indian trade with other BRICS countries?
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  • The ‘Act East’ policy has not brought the expected gains for India. Do you agree?
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  • What is meant by middle powers in international relations? How aligning with other middle powers would help India rise in the new global order?
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  • What do you understand by ‘The String of Pearls’? How does it impact India? Briefly outline the steps taken by India to counter this.
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  • Despite differences, India and China need to come together for multilateral, rules-based world order. Comment.
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  • What are the key areas of reforms if the WTO has to survive in the present context of unilateralism and protectionism?
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  • Can Perpetual bonds provide some relief against the economic effects of the COVID 19 pandemic?
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  • Why are the Governments in India relying on liquor sales so much?
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  • What is helicopter money and why its use is advocated against corona pandemic?
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  • Explain the key issues in infrastructure financing in India. What steps have been taken by the government to address these issues?
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  • What are the important characteristics of footloose industries? What are the factors responsible for the location of footloose industries?
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  • Enumerate various reasons and the impact of the rise in cases of bank frauds in the last decade in India. Discuss the need for bringing reforms in banking governance to prevent such frauds.
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  • Critically discuss the recent NITI Aayog’s proposal to build tourism villas in Andaman-Nicobar and Lakshadweep archipelagos.
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  • Nuclear energy although has potential to solve India’s energy problems but carry great inherent risks. Elaborate.
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  • What do you understand by the term ‘informal sector’? Enumerate the steps taken by the government to improve the condition of workers in the informal sector.
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  • Indian textile industry can play an important role in India’s inclusive growth. In light of this, discuss the significance of ‘Technical Textiles Mission’.
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  • What is Bio-Energy? Discuss how bio-energy can help in meeting India’s energy demands.
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  • Critically analyze the accomplishments achieved through the nationalization of banks in India.
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  • Discuss the role of renewable energy resources in order to maintain environmental sustainability with special reference to India.
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  • Economic survey 2020, highlights that India’s aspiration to become a $5 trillion economy depends critically on promoting ‘pro-business’ policy than a ‘pro-crony’ policy. Do you agree? Elaborate.
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  • Investment in sanitation is actually a facilitator for broader economic, health and social gains. Comment.
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  • What is the ‘Nordic Economic Model’? Do you think the Nordic Economic Model can be a way forward for a sustainable future?
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  • Promoting and strengthening the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) sector can help in achieving inclusive growth. Comment.
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  • What do you understand by the ‘formalization of the economy’? Discuss various merits and demerits of formalization.
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  • What are various bottlenecks to infrastructure creation in India? Discuss the significance of the National Infrastructure Pipeline (NIP) for infrastructure creation.
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  • What is public-private partnership (PPP)? Discuss various advantages and issues related to public-private partnership (PPP) in India.
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  • Discuss the need and significance of recent railways reforms. Examine whether private roles in railways should be increased.
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  • Critically examine whether the ‘Make in India’ initiative has met its objectives or not. Suggest some measures needed to improve its outcomes.
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  • Discuss various efforts made by India and various states to improve ease of doing business in India. What else needs to be done?
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  • What is stagflation? What steps should be taken to control stagflation in Indian economy?
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  • What is financial inclusion? What are the challenges to financial inclusion in India? Discuss various government measures for the same.
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  • What are the major varieties of coal in India? Discuss various issues associated with coal mining in India?
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  • What is strategic disinvestment? Discuss its need and significance for Indian economy.
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  • A focus on developing human capital and employment generation can help India to become a $5 trillion economy. Comment.
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  • What are the advantages of offshore wind energy projects to onshore projects? What are the challenges for offshore projects in India?
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  • Discuss the problems faced by the power sector in India. Suggest some measures to tackle these problems.
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  • What is the National Infrastructure Pipeline? Discuss its need and significance in light of India’s aim to become a $5 trillion economy.
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  • In order to arrest the slowdown in the economy, India needs to make its policies people-centric rather than growth-centric. Comment.
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  • Why FCI is not JUST Food Corruption of India? Explained
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  • Explain the benefits of micro-irrigation over conventional irrigation systems. Also, mention various challenges in the adoption of this technology.
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  • Critically analyze whether the Aadhaar-based biometric authentication has been able to reduce PDS leakages or not.
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  • What do you mean by the Minimum Support Price (MSP)? Examine the benefit and issues associated with Minimum Support Price.
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  • Why are land reforms still not complete in India? What are obstacles in its way? Elaborate.
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  • Given the fact that the livestock sector has grown significantly over the last five years, it assumes an important role in income, employment, and nutritional security. Comment.
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  • The realization of the objective of doubling farmers’ income necessitates address of some of the basic challenges of agriculture and the allied sector. Discuss these challenges and suggest measures to overcome them.
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  • Discuss the need and significance of Pesticides Management Bill, 2020.
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  • Would you advocate that the income of rich farmers should be taxed in India? Give reasons.
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  • What is Agricultural Protection Zoning? Discuss its need and importance.
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  • ‘E-commerce has tremendous potential to benefit farmers, small-scale industries, and indigenous communities’. Comment.
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  • Increased investment in agriculture research is an absolute need of the hour. Examine.
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  • What is organic farming? Explain why the use of organic farming should be encouraged in India.
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  • Critically examine whether the MGNREGA scheme has been able to address the issue of rural distress.
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  • Discuss whether the introduction of Bt cotton has benefitted Indian farmers or not. Do you think genetically modified crops can help farmers’ cause?
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  • What is vertical farming? How does it work? Discuss its advantages and disadvantages.
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  • Give an account of different strategies for implementation of the National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture.
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  • How can the ‘Digital India’ program help farmers to improve farm productivity and income? What steps has the Government taken in this regard?
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  • The Move to cash transfers will put agriculture on a sustainable growth path. Do you agree? Also, suggest some measures to make agriculture more sustainable and productive.
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  • Subsidies are not a sustainable solution to underlying problems, rather it is a burden on the fiscal purse. Comment.
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  • Livestock rearing has a big potential for providing non-farm employment and income in rural areas. Discuss suggesting suitable measures to promote this sector in India.
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  • What do you understand about the Integrated Farming System? How far is the Integrated Farming System helpful in sustaining agricultural production?
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  • With millions suffering from hunger and tonnes of food grains rotting in massive accumulation of grain stocks Indian needs to reform their grain management system. Comment.
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  • What is Remdesivir and why its’s effectiveness against Covid-19 is doubtful?
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  • Why Google and Apple have recently banned GPS data collection for contact tracing of Covid-19 patients?
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  • What is the process of vaccine development and how much time does it take?
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  • What is Maze Ransomware and why is it the biggest data threat to organizations?
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  • What are the various reasons for the gender gap in science-related fields? Suggest some measures to improve women's participation in these fields.
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  • What is Quantum Technology? Discuss its potential applications and the significance of ‘National Mission on Quantum Technologies and Applications’ in this direction.
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  • Explain the working mechanism of vaccines. Discuss the significance of vaccination and mention various challenges regarding vaccination in India.
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  • Discuss the role of technology and the private sector in fighting an epidemic like Coronavirus.
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  • What is biometrics? Discuss potential applications and dangers associated with biometric technology.
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  • What is genome sequencing? Discuss the significance of genome sequencing in the recent context of the Coronavirus epidemic.
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  • The growing role of the private sector in space, demands India to move quickly towards a new model for India’s space activity. Explain with illustrations.
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  • What are cryptocurrencies? Discuss various concerns related to cryptocurrencies.
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  •  Do you think India should legalize abortion in India? Critically comment.
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  • Discuss the potential application of artificial intelligence in the healthcare system. Also, mention steps taken by the government to promote artificial intelligence in India.
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  • India needs to build its own technology capability and ensure that the technology available is inclusive in nature. Comment.
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  • What are the salient features of the Assisted Reproductive Technology Regulation Bill, 2020? Discuss its significance.
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  • Describe briefly what stem cell therapy is and what advantages it has over other treatments?
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  • What is ‘National Mission on Transformative Mobility and Battery Storage’? Discuss its importance.
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  • What are various reasons for the gender gap in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics)-related fields? Suggest some measures to improve women's participation in these fields.
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  • With growing energy needs should India keep on extending its nuclear energy program? Discuss the facts and fears associated with nuclear energy.
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  •  What is India’s genome mapping project? Discuss its significance and potential benefits.
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  •  How far the developments in science and technology in the post-Independence period put India on the path of modernity?
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  •  What is Darknet? Discuss its potential dangers and an urgent need for a data protection law.
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  • Indigenizing defense capabilities can help India both economically and strategically. Examine.
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  • Describe the salient features of Indian Government’s Mission on Nanoscience and Technology and the scope of its application in the development process of the country.
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  • What is ISRO’s Young Scientist Programme 2020? Discuss its need and significance.
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  • Discuss India’s achievements in the field of Space Science and Technology. How the application of this technology has helped India in its socio-economic development?
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  • ‘Increased use of Facial recognition technology is dangerous in the absence of privacy and data security laws’. Comment.
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  • Progress made under the BharatNet initiative is not impressive. Examine. Suggest some measures to reduce the digital divide in India.
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  • Discuss the significance of Supreme Court judgment in Shreya Singhal case. Examine whether Draft Intermediary Rules by the Ministry of Information and Technology is against the principles of this judgment.
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  • What is blockchain technology? Discuss its advantages and potential applications.
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  • Why is artificial intelligence one of the key developments of the 21st century? Discuss government efforts regarding artificial intelligence in India and the scope of its application in the development process of the country.
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  • What is the importance of the Gaganyaan mission to India? Discuss various challenges related to the mission.
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  • Implementation of information and Communication Technology (ICT) based Projects/Programmes usually suffers in terms of certain vital factors. Identify these factors, and suggest measures for their effective implementation.
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  • What is a digital signature? What are the various types of digital signature? Discuss its working mechanism and various benefits.
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  • India has an opportunity to emerge as a global leader in data protection, especially for developing countries facing similar challenges and opportunities. Discuss.
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  • There are glaring deficiencies in drug regulation that need urgent addressing. Comment.
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  • Analyse the role and effectiveness of FATF (Financial Action Task Force) in combating the financing of terrorism.
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  • Discuss various threats and challenges to cyber-security in India. What initiatives are being taken by the government to enhance cyber-security in India?
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  • Discuss the shift of India’s foreign policy towards Pakistan in the light of recent attacks.
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  • How does illegal trans-border migration pose a threat to India’s security? Discuss the strategies to curb this, bringing out the factors which give impetus to such migration.
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  • There is a view that the Official Secrets Act is an obstacle to the implementation of the Right to Information Act. Do you agree with the view? Discuss.
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  • What are various new-age threats to Indian security? Discuss how India should prepare itself for these threats.
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  • Discuss the role and significance of the Chief of Defence Staff (CDS). How it would help in India’s security?
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  • ‘Securing personal data is the key to making India truly digital’. In light of this statement highlights the salient features of the Personal Data Protection Bill, 2019. Also, mention the concerns raised against the bill. Suggest measures to address the same.
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  • The current climate crisis has led to an increase in the number of intense ‘hydro-meteorological’ disasters’. Comment. What policy measures can be taken to counter this?
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  • What are the major causes of forest fires in India? Discuss its impact on the forest ecosystem. Suggest some measures to tackle it.
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  • Corporate social responsibility makes companies more profitable and sustainable. Analyse.
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  • What is Information Ethics? Discuss its significance in present times.
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  • What is the difference between attitude and aptitude? Which of the two is more important for leading a successful life?
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  • What do you understand by the term ‘moral conscience’? Discuss the role of moral conscience in ethical behavior.
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  • “The good of an individual is contained in the good of all.” What do you understand by this statement? How can this principle be implemented in public life?
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  • What is Corporate Governance? What are the weaknesses in corporate governance in India? Also, discuss the importance of ethically-based corporate governance.
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  • Young people with ethical conduct are not willing to come forward to join active politics. Suggest steps to motivate them to come forward.
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  • What do you understand by the term ‘Social Audit’? Discuss how it aids in good governance.
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  • What is ‘emotional intelligence’ and how can it be developed in people? How does it help an individual in making ethical decisions?
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  • Honesty as a policy always comes with a price. The path of honesty, like dharma, is straight yet seldom simple. It often turns out to be tortuous, consumes more energy, sometimes even damaging the vehicle because of unfavourable road conditions. The honest, however, go on regardless, perhaps driven by an inner force that borders on recklessness. Elaborate. Discuss the importance of honesty in civil services.
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  • What do you understand by public service? List out the principles of Public Life as recommended by the Nolan Committee in this context.
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