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Source: The post is based on the article “Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change celebrates 29th World Ozone Day” published in PIB on 17th September 2023
What is the News?
The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC) has celebrated the 29th World Ozone Day.
What is World Ozone Day?
World Ozone Day is celebrated on 16th September each year to commemorate the signing of the Montreal Protocol.
Aim; To spread awareness among people about the depletion of Ozone Layer and the measures taken/ to be taken to preserve it.
Theme: “Montreal Protocol: fixing the ozone layer and reducing climate change”.
What is an Ozone Layer?
Ozone Layer exists in the Stratosphere, between 10 KM and 40 KM above the Earth’s surface.
Ozone formed in the stratosphere called stratospheric ozone or good Ozone.Without the Ozone layer, radiation from the sun would reach earth directly, having ill effects on human health, i.e., eye cataract, skin cancer, etc., and adverse impacts on agriculture, forestry and marine life.
Man Made chemicals containing chlorine and bromine reach the stratosphere and undergo a complex series of catalytic reactions, leading to destruction of ozone. These chemicals are called Ozone Depleting Substances.
What is the Vienna Convention?
Vienna Convention is an international treaty on the protection of the Ozone Layer.It came into force in 1985.
Under this convention, the Montreal Protocol came into force in 1987 to repair the ozone layer to protect the earth’s Ozone Layer by phasing out production and consumption of Ozone Depleting Substances for end applications.
What is the Montreal Protocol?
What are India’s achievements in implementation of Montreal Protocol?
India has been successfully implementing the Montreal Protocol and its ozone depleting substances phase out projects and activities in line with the phase out schedule of the Protocol.
India has phased out Chlorofluorocarbons, Carbon tetrachloride, Halons, Methyl Bromide and Methyl Chloroform for controlled uses is in line with the Montreal Protocol phase out schedule.
Currently Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are being phased out as per the accelerated schedule of the Montreal Protocol.
Hydrochlorofluorocarbons Phase out Management Plan (HPMP) Stage-I has been successfully implemented from 2012 to 2016 and Hydrochlorofluorocarbons Phase out Management Plan (HPMP) Stage- II is currently under implementation from 2017 and will be completed by the end of 2024.
What is the Kigali Agreement?
India has ratified the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol.
India will complete its phase down of production and consumption of Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) for controlled uses in 4 steps from 2032 onwards with cumulative reduction of 10% in 2032, 20% in 2037, 30% in 2042 and 85% in 2047.