Nilgiris Elephant Corridor and Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve 

About Nilgiris elephant corridor: It is situated in the ecologically fragile Sigur plateau. The plateau connects the Western and the Eastern Ghats. Apart from that, the plateau also sustains elephant populations and their genetic diversity. 

Nilgiri Biosphere reserve

Source: Vikaspedia 

Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve: The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve is the largest protected forest area in India.  

Location: The Biosphere Reserve spreads across three states. Namely, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Kerala. 

Flora: It hosts forest systems, ranging from seasonal rain forests in the low hills, tropical montane Shola forests and grasslands in the higher reaches, and moist deciduous to scrub through dry-deciduous towards the plains in the Eastern end.  

Endemic Flora: Vanda, Liparis, BulbophyllumSpiranthesThrixspermum 

Fauna:  Important faunal elements include Tiger, Elephant, Gaur, Lion tail macaque, Cheethal, Sambar, Wild Boar, Barking deer, Nilgiri Tahr, etc. 

Hills and Wildlife Sanctuaries:  

  • The reserve includes the AralamMudumalaiMukurthiNagarholeBandipur, and Silent Valley national parks.  Similarly,  the reserve also includes the Wayanad, Karimpuzha, and Sathyamangam wildlife sanctuaries. 
  • It has the Nilgiri Hills on its southwestern side and the Moyar River Valley on its north-eastern side. The elephants cross the plateau in search of food and water. 

UNESCO World Heritage Site: The Nilgiri Sub-Cluster is a part of the Western Ghats which was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2012. 

Significance: About 80% of flowering plants reported from the Western Ghats occur in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. 

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