Personalities in News

  • 129th birth anniversary of Satyendra Nath Bose: a look at the scientist’s contributions

    Source: The post is based on the article “129th birth anniversary of Satyendra Nath Bose: a look at the scientist’s contributions” published in Indian Express on 3rd January 2023

    What is the News?

    The 129th birth anniversary of Satyendra Nath Bose was celebrated recently.

    Who was Satyendra Nath Bose?

    Satyendra Nath Bose was born on January 1, 1894. He was a mathematician and physicist specializing in theoretical physics. 

    Contributions

    Bose Einstein Statistics: At the age of 22, Bose was appointed lecturer at Calcutta University, along with astrophysicist Meghnad Saha. 

    In 1921, he joined the then-Dacca University as Reader in Physics. It was here while teaching that he documented his findings in a report called Planck’s Law and the Hypothesis of Light Quanta. 

    Even though his research was rejected by a journal, he decided to mail his paper to Albert Einstein.

    Einstein recognised the significance of Bose’s theory and generalised it to a wider range of phenomena, and the theory came to be known as Bose-Einstein statistics.

    X-ray crystallography laboratory: In 1927, Bose was appointed professor of physics and then Head of Department at Dhaka University in 1927. 

    Here, Bose designed equipment for setting up an X-ray crystallography laboratory at the university, and wrote several papers on a range of subjects, such as ‘D2 Statistics’, and ‘Total Reflection of Electromagnetic Waves in the Ionosphere’.

    In 1945, he left Dhaka to return to his alma mater, the University of Calcutta as the Khaira Professor of Physics. He retired from the University of Calcutta in 1956 and spent a year as the Vice Chancellor at the Viswa-Bharati University.

    Headed many institutions: He served as president of many scientific institutions, which include the Indian Physical Society, the National Institute of Science, the Indian Science Congress and the Indian Statistical Institute.

    He also acted as an advisor to the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research(CSIR) and later became a Fellow of the Royal Society.

    Recognition of his contributions: Bose was awarded Padma Vibhushan, one of the highest civilian awards in the country, by the Indian government in 1954.

  • Amid VHP row over song in school, recalling Muhammad Iqbal, also the poet of Saare Jahan Se Achcha

    Source: The post is based on the article “Amid VHP row over song in school, recalling Muhammad Iqbal, also the poet of Saare Jahan Se Achcha” published in Indian Express on 24th December 2022

    What is the News?

    Police in Uttar Pradesh has booked the principal of a government school for hurting religious sentiments by making students recite “Lab Pe Aati Hai Dua” poem during a morning assembly.

    Who wrote Lab pe Aati Hai Dua?

    Lab pe Aati Hai Dua was written by Iqbal in 1902. It has been sung at several educational institutions in India and Pakistan including some prestigious schools which sing it in their morning assembly.

    Who was Muhammad Iqbal?

    Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938) was a writer, philosopher and scholar and politician whose poetry in the Urdu language is considered among the greatest of the twentieth century.

    Iqbal is commonly referred to as Allama, which is a title given to Islamic scholars.

    Important work: The most celebrated work of Iqbal is the immortal ‘Saare jahan se achcha Hindustan hamara’ written in 1904. This beautiful poem to India became one of the songs that inspired the freedom fighters against British rule.

    The idea of Pakistan: In his later life, Iqbal came to favour the idea of a separate nation for Muslims, and is believed to have been the influence behind Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s vision of a separate nation of Pakistan.

    In Pakistan, Iqbal is regarded as the ideological founder of the nation — the man who envisioned the state that Jinnah gave physical shape.

  • Sri Aurobindo inspired generations, left his mark wherever he went: PM Modi

    Source: The post is based on the article Sri Aurobindo inspired generations, left his mark wherever he went: PM Modi published in The Hindu on 14th December 2022

    What is the News?

    The Prime Minister has virtually released a commemorative coin and postage stamp to mark the 150th birth anniversary celebrations of Sri Aurobindo.

    Who was Sri Aurobindo? 

    Sri Aurobindo was born on August 15, 1872. He was an Indian philosopher, yogi, maharishi, poet, and Indian nationalist.

    Aurobindo’s pragmatic strategies to get rid of British rule marked him as “the Prophet of Indian Nationalism”.

    Education: His education began in a Christian convent school in Darjeeling.

    He entered the University of Cambridge, where he became proficient in two classical and several modern European languages.

    In 1892, he held various administrative posts in Baroda and Calcutta.

    Freedom Movement: The partition of Bengal in 1905 provoked Aurobindo to leave his job in Baroda and plunge into the nationalist movement. 

    He started the patriotic journal Bande Mataram to propagate radical methods and revolutionary tactics instead of supplication. 

    He was arrested thrice by the British — twice for sedition and once for conspiring to “wage war”. 

    In 1908, he was arrested on the charge of the Alipore bomb conspiracy case but was acquitted in 1909 after a long trial.

    Integral Yoga: Though acquitted, Aurobindo faced a constant threat of jail or exile to the Andamans, forcing him to seek refuge in Pondicherry, a French enclave.

    At Pondicherry, Sri Aurobindo developed a spiritual practice called Integral Yoga. The central theme of his vision was the evolution of human life into a divine life in the divine body.

    Aurobindo’s Ideas on Second World War: Several Indians saw the Second World War as an opportune moment to get rid of colonial occupation; Aurobindo asked his compatriots to support the Allies and ensure Hitler’s defeat.

    – In 1943, he was nominated for the Nobel Prize for literature and then again in 1950 for the Nobel Peace Prize.

    Literary works: He was also a journalist and his first philosophical magazine called Arya was published in 1914. Among his many writings are The Life Divine, The Synthesis of Yoga and Savitri.

  • Ministry of Culture organizes International conference on the contributions of “J C Bose: A Satyagrahi Scientist”

    Source: The post is based on the article Ministry of Culture organizes International conference on the contributions of J C Bose: A Satyagrahi Scientistpublished in PIB on 5th December 2022.

    What is the News?

    The Ministry of Culture has organized an international conference on the contributions of J C Bose: A Satyagrahi Scientist” on his 164th birth anniversary.

    Who is Jagdish Chandra Bose?

    Jagadish Chandra Bose (1858 – 1937) was an Indian physicist and plant physiologist. 

    He earned a B.Sc. from University College London, which was connected with the University of London in 1883, and a BA (Natural Sciences Tripos) from the University of Cambridge in 1884.

    Contributions

    In 1917, he established Bose Institute – Asia’s first modern research center devoted to interdisciplinary studies. 

    He discovered wireless communication and was named Father of Radio Science by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.

    He invented the crescograph, a device for measuring the growth of plants. He for the first time demonstrated that plants have feelings.

    He was the first to demonstrate radio communication with millimetre wavelengths, which fall in the 30GHz to 300GHz spectrum.

    Bose is considered the father of Bengali science fiction. A crater on the moon has been named in his honour.

    In 1896, he published Niruddesher Kahini, first work of science fiction in the Bengali language

    Bose was the first Asian to be awarded a US patent. In 1904, he was awarded a patent for his invention of a detector for electrical disturbances.

    Books: Response in the Living and Non-Living, The Nervous: Mechanism of Plants etc. 

  • 400th birth anniversary of Assam’s war hero Lachit Borphukan to be celebrated

    Source: The post is based on the article “400th birth anniversary of Assam’s war hero Lachit Borphukan to be celebrated” published in The Hindu on 23rd November.

    What is the News?

    A three-day celebration of the 400th birth anniversary of the legendary Assamese general and folk hero Lachit Borphukan began in New Delhi on November 23.

    Who was ​​Lachit Borphukan?

    ​​Lachit Borphukan was a commander in the erstwhile Ahom kingdom.

    He is known for his leadership in the 1671 Battle of Saraighat that thwarted an attempt by Mughal forces to capture Assam. 

    The battle of Saraighat was fought on the banks of the Brahmaputra in Guwahati.

    He defeated the Mughal Army by brilliant uses of the terrain, guerrilla tactics, clever diplomatic negotiations to buy time, military intelligence and by exploiting the sole weakness of the Mughal forces—its navy.

    What is the significance of ​​Lachit Borphukan?

    Lachit Divas has been celebrated on November 24, his birth anniversary in Assam since the 1930s.

    He was the inspiration behind strengthening India’s naval force and revitalizing inland water transport and creating infrastructure associated with it due to his great naval strategies.

    The Lachit Borphukan gold medal is awarded to the best cadet from the National Defence Academy. The medal was instituted in 1999 to inspire defence personnel to emulate Borphukan’s heroism and sacrifices.

  • Legal battle over demolitions near tomb of Afzal Khan in Maharashtra

    Source: The post is based on the article “Legal battle over demolitions near tomb of Afzal Khan in Maharashtra” published in Indian Express on 15th November 2022

    What is the News?

    The Supreme Court(SC) has sought reports from the Maharashtra government on the demolition drive conducted around the tomb of Afzal Khan.

    Who was Afzal Khan?

    Afzal Khan was a 17th-century commander of the Adil Shahi dynasty of Bijapur.

    With Chhatrapati Shivaji’s rise and increasing control of the region, Afzal Khan was seen as the man to subdue him in the Deccan.

    Afzal Khan put together a force of 10,000 cavalry and marched from Bijapur to Wai, plundering Shivaji’s territory along the way.

    Shivaji called a council of war at the fort of Pratapgarh, where most of his advisers urged him to make peace. However, Shivaji was not eager to back down and he set up a meeting with Khan.

    During the meeting, an embrace between the two turned into an attack in which Shivaji emerged victorious. This was followed by a rout of the Adilshahi army at the hands of the Marathas.

    As per Maratha sources, Khan’s remains were buried at the fort and a tomb was constructed on Shivaji’s orders.

    In an act of grace, Shivaji erected a tomb over the remains of Afzul Khan and built a tower in his honour which is still known by the name ‘Afzul Buruj’ at Pratapgarh.

    The sword of Afzal Khan was preserved as a valued trophy in the armoury of Shivaji and his descendants.

  • Who was Sir CP, whose ‘independent Travancore mission’ ended with assassination bid

    Source: The post is based on the article “Who was Sir CP, whose ‘independent Travancore mission’ ended with assassination bid” published in Indian Express on 15th November 2022

    What is the News?

    The name of former Travancore Diwan Sir CP Ramaswamy Iyer has been mentioned in the middle of the ongoing disagreement between the Kerala administration and the Governor.

    Who is Sir CP Ramaswamy Iyer?

    Sir Chetput Pattabhiraman Ramaswamy Iyer, popularly known as ‘Sir CP’, was the Diwan of the erstwhile Travancore princely state from 1936 to 1947.

    He rose to glorious heights as he found favour with both the crown prince Sri Chithira Thirunal Bala Rama Varma and Lord Willingdon, the Viceroy of India. 

    From 1936 to 1947, he was the Diwan of the old Travancore princely state.

    Independent Travancore: On June 3, 1947, Britain announced its intention to quit India, while also accepting demands for the country’s partition. 

    – Following this, the Indian Independence Act of 1947 gave princely states the option to accede to the newly divided territories of India or Pakistan or continue as an independent sovereign state.

    – Maharaja Sri Chithira Thirunal, who wished to stay independent, was supported by Sir CP, who declared his intention of forming an independent state of Travancore that would be open to the idea of signing a treaty with the Indian union.

    Punnapra-Vayalar revolt: Amid his dream of an independent state, Sir CP became more unpopular as he proposed an ‘American model’ for Travancore. 

    – His policies led to a massive uprising, the Punnapra-Vayalar revolt which was suppressed by the Travancore army and navy. 

    – The anger and discontent culminated into an assassination attempt on Sir CP on July 25, 1947.

    Joining of India: Sir CP agreed to the accession of Travancore state to the Indian Union, following which he resigned and left for London. On July 30, 1947, Travancore joined India.

  • PM pays tributes to Acharya Kripalani on his Jayanti

    Source: The post is based on the articlePM pays tributes to Acharya Kripalani on his Jayantipublished in PIB on 13th November 2022

    What is the News?

    The Prime Minister has paid  tributes to Acharya Kripalani on his Jayanti.

    Who was Acharya Kriplani?

    Acharya Kriplani was born in 1888 in Hyderabad, Sindh. He was an independence activist, an Indian politician and an Educationist.

    Contributions by Acharya Kriplani

    Independence movement: He was actively involved in movements like Non-Cooperation Movement, Quit India Movement, and Salt Satyagraha.

    – He served in the Interim Government of India (1946–1947) and the Constituent Assembly of India.

    As an educationist: Kripalani was also well-known for his work in the field of education, environment and other social movements.

    – He earned the moniker ‘Acharya’ title around 1922 when he was teaching at the Gujarat Vidyapith, founded by the Mahatma a couple of years before.

    Political Career: He became one of the founders of the Kisan Mazdoor Praja Party (KMPP) after independence leaving congress.

    – He was elected to the Lok Sabha in 1952, 1957, 1963 and 1967 as a member of Praja Socialist Party.

    – He moved the first-ever No confidence motion in Lok Sabha in 1963, immediately after the India-China War (1962).

    – He was arrested during the Emergency in 1975.

    – His autobiography “My Times” was published posthumously in 2004.

  • PM unveils 108-feet-long bronze statue of Sri Nadaprabhu Kempegowda in Bengaluru

    Source: The post is based on the articlePM unveils 108-feet-long bronze statue of Sri Nadaprabhu Kempegowda in Bengalurupublished in PIB on 10th November 2022.

    What is the News?

    The Prime Minister has unveiled a 108-feet-long bronze statue of Sri Nadaprabhu Kempegowda in Bengaluru. The statue has been named as the Statue of Prosperity.

    Who is Nadaprabhu Kempegowda?

    Nadaprabhu Kempegowda is a 16th-century chieftain of the Vijayanagara empire. He belonged to the Vokkaliga community in south Karnataka.

    He is credited as the founder of Bengaluru City. It is said that he conceived the idea of a new city while hunting with his minister and later marked its territory by erecting towers in four corners of the proposed city.

    He is also known to have developed around 1,000 lakes in the city to cater to drinking and agricultural needs.

    One of his social reforms was to prohibit the custom of amputating the last two fingers of the left hand of unmarried women during “Bandi Devaru”, an important custom of Morasu Vokkaligas.

  • PM bows to freedom fighter, Pasumpon Muthuramalinga Thevar on the occasion of his Guru Pooja

    Source: The post is based on the article PM bows to freedom fighter, Pasumpon Muthuramalinga Thevar on the occasion of his Guru Pooja published in PIB on 1st November 2022.

    What is the News?

    The Prime Minister has paid tributes to freedom fighter Pasumpon Muthuramalinga Thevar on the occasion of his Guru Pooja.

    Who was Pasumpon Muthuramalinga Thevar?

    Pasumpon Muthuramalinga Thevar was born on 30th October 1908 in Pasumpon in the Ramanathapuram district of Tamil Nadu. 

    He was a freedom-fighter cum spiritual leader and was seen as a deity among the Mukulathor community. 

    The people of the Mukulathor community still make offerings as is done for the deities in temples to the statue on his birthday and guru pooja celebrations. 

    He did not accept traditional Hinduism because it supported the ‘Varnashrama’. He regularly fought against the evils of the Hindu religion. 

    Thevar became a full-time member of the Congress party and attended the 1927 Congress session at Madras as a volunteer when he was just 19. 

    He became a close aide of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose. Netaji introduced Thevar to his mother as his younger sibling.

    In 1939, he assisted activist A. Vaidyanatha Iyer to take Dalits to the Meenakshi Temple in Madurai.

    He was instrumental in getting the Criminal Tribes Act(CTA) repealed after continuous efforts in 1946.

  • Raskhan and Taj Bibi: U.P. promotes tombs of Muslim devotees of Krishna for tourism

    Source: The post is based on the article “U.P. promotes tombs of Muslim devotees of Krishna for tourism” published in The Hindu on 31st October 2022.

    What is the News?

    The Tourism department of Uttar Pradesh has redeveloped the tombs of Raskhan and Taj Bibi (both devotees of Lord Krishna) as a tourist complex with an open-air theatre.

    Who was Raskhan?

    Raskhan or Syed Ibrahim Khan was a 16th-century Sufi Muslim poet born either in Amroha or Hardoi in Uttar Pradesh. 

    Raskhan was his pen name in Hindi.

    He became a follower of Krishna and spent his life in Vrindavan. 

    His poetry is in the form of Doha, Padawali and Savayya.

    Who was Taj Bibi?

    Taj Bibi, also known as the ‘Mughal Mirabai’ was the daughter of a Muslim nobleman named Padna Khan.

    Taj Bibi was married to Emperor Akbar and was appointed by the Mughals to protect the Gokul area.

    She wrote poetry during the Mughal time when the ruling class belonged to the Muslim religion.

  • A golden memory of Rajahmahendravaram

    Source: The post is based on the articleA golden memory of Rajahmahendravarampublished in The Hindu on 5th September 2022.

    What is the News?

    Seven Gold coins that date back to the Eastern Chalukya dynasty including the rule of Rajaraja Narendra are preserved at the Rallabandi Subbarao Government Museum in Rajahmundry in Andhra Pradesh.

    Who was Rajaraja Narendra?

    Rajaraja Narendra(1019 – 1061 AD) was the Eastern Chalukya king of the Vengi kingdom in South India. 

    He established the city Rajahmahendravaram (Rajahmundry) on the banks of the Godavari during his reign.  

    His period was famous for its Social and Cultural heritage. 

    Rajaraja Narendra asked his court poet Nannayya to transcreate Mahabharata written in Sanskrit by Veda Vyas into the Telugu language to make it more comprehensible to the Telugus in his kingdom. 

    Nannayya could do so for three parvas. This was followed by the efforts of two other poets — Tikkanna and Yerrapragada – who completed the whole exercise to transcreate the greatest epic into Telugu.

  • Explained: Who was Pandurang Khankhoje, Ghadarite revolutionary and a hero of Mexico?

    Source: The post is based on the article “Explained: Who was Pandurang Khankhoje, Ghadarite revolutionary and a hero of Mexico?” published in Indian Express on 23rd August 2022.

    What is the News?

    Lok Sabha Speaker will be travelling to Mexico where he will unveil statues of Swami Vivekananda and Maharashtra-born freedom fighter and agriculturalist Pandurang Khankhoje (1883-1967).

    Who was Pandurang Khankhoje?

    Pandurang Khankhoje(1884 – 1967) was an Indian revolutionary, scholar and agricultural scientist.

    He was one of the founding members of the Ghadar Party, established by Indians living abroad in 1914, mostly belonging to Punjab. Its aim was to lead a revolutionary fight against the British in India.

    What was the connection between Pandurang Khankhoje and Mexico?

    Pandurang Khankhoje decided to go abroad for further training in revolutionary methods and militaristic strategy. He joined the Mount Tamalpais Military Academy in the US.

    At the military academy, he met many people from Mexico. The Mexican Revolution of 1910 had led to the overthrow of the dictatorial regime and this inspired Khankhoje.

    Along with the Indian workers, militant action was planned by Khankhoje in India, but the outbreak of the First World War halted these plans. He then reached out to Bhikaji Cama in Paris, and met with Vladimir Lenin in Russia among other leaders, seeking support for the Indian cause. 

    However, as he was facing possible deportation from Europe and could not go to India, he sought shelter in Mexico.

    In Mexico, he was appointed as a professor at the National School of Agriculture. He researched corn, wheat, pulses and rubber, developing frost and drought-resistant varieties and was part of efforts to bring in the Green Revolution in Mexico.

  • Explained: The revolutionaries whom PM mentioned in his Independence Day speech

    Source: The post is based on the article “Explained: The revolutionaries whom PM mentioned in his Independence Day speech” published in Indian Express on 16th August 2022.

    What is the News?

    In his Independence Day speech, the Prime Minister paid tribute to a range of personalities from India’s freedom struggle including fearless revolutionary heroes and several others who fought colonial rule outside the mainstream national movement.

    Which are the revolutionaries the PM referred to in his speech?

    Mangal Pandey: He was a soldier with the British Indian army. He is believed to have sparked off the mutiny of Indian soldiers at Meerut that eventually became the great revolt of 1857 and spread to other parts of North India. 

    Tantya Tope: He was a trusted lieutenant of Nana Sahib, the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II of the Maratha empire. Nana Sahib lost his ancestral rights under the ‘Doctrine of Lapse’ that disallowed adopted heirs of Indian rulers from ascending to the throne.

    – In 1857, he brought together armed forces to declare Nana Sahib the ruler of Kanpur and attempted to protect the seat of power for over five months. 

    Bhagat Singh: He was inspired by communist thought, anti-colonialism, and anti-communalism, and was involved in the symbolic bombing of the Central Legislative Assembly. 

    – He was hanged by the British at the age of 23. Along with Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru were also hanged to death.

    Chandrashekhar Azad: He was a comrade and intellectual fellow traveller of Rajguru, Sukhdev, Bhagat Singh, Ramprasad Bismil and Ashfaqulla Khan. He gave himself the name ‘Azad’ and vowed never to be held captive; when cornered by police in his final moments, he chose to shoot himself.

    Ashfaqulla Khan: He helped form the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association(HSRA) and was part of the Kakori incident. In April 1927, Bismil, Khan, Rajendra Lahiri, and Roshan Singh were sentenced to death.

    Ramprasad Bismil: He was associated with the Arya Samaj from an early age. He started writing powerful patriotic poems in Urdu and Hindi under the pen names ‘Bismil’, ‘Ram’, and ‘Agyat’. The patriotic song “Mera rang de Basanti chola” is attributed to him. He was executed at the age of 30.

  • Explained: Women heroes of India’s freedom struggle, mentioned by PM in his I-Day speech

    Source: The post is based on the article “Explained: Women heroes of India’s freedom struggle, mentioned by PM in his I-Day speech” published in Indian Express on 16th August 2022.

    What is the News?

    During 75th Independence Day anniversary speech, the Prime Minister hailed “nari shakti”, and urged people to pledge to not do anything that lowers the dignity of women. He also paid tribute to women freedom fighters for showing the world the true meaning of India’s “nari shakti”.

    Who are the women freedom fighters mentioned by PM in his speech?

    Rani Laxmibai: Rani Laxmibai is known for her role in the First War of India’s Independence in 1857. 

    She was born in 1835. She got married to the king of Jhansi. The couple adopted a son before the king’s death which the British East India Company refused to accept as the legal heir and decided to annex Jhansi.

    Refusing to cede her territory, the queen decided to rule on behalf of the heir and later joined the uprising against the British in 1857.

    Cornered by the British, she escaped from Jhansi fort. She was wounded in combat near Gwalior’s Phool Bagh where she later died. 

    Sir Hugh Rose, who was commanding the British army, is known to have described her as “personable, clever and one of the most dangerous Indian leaders”.

    Jhalkari Bai: She was a soldier in Rani Laxmibai’s women’s army.

    She rose to become one of the queen’s most trusted advisers. She is known for putting her own life at risk to keep the queen out of harm’s way. 

    To date, the story of her valour is recalled by the people of Bundelkhand, and she is often presented as a representative of Bundeli identity.

    Durga Bhabhi: Durgawati Devi was popularly known as Durga Bhabhi. She was a revolutionary who joined the armed struggle against colonial rule. 

    She was born in Allahabad in 1907 and married to Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) member Bhagwati Charan Vohra.

    She was a member of the Naujawan Bharat Sabha. She helped Bhagat Singh escape in disguise from Lahore after the 1928 killing of British police officer John P Saunders.

    During the train journey that followed, Durgawati and Bhagat Singh posed as a couple and Rajguru as their servant. 

    Later, as revenge for the hanging of Bhagat Singh, Rajguru, and Sukhdev, she made an unsuccessful attempt to kill the former Punjab Governor, Lord Hailey.

    Click Here to read about: Kittur Chennamma, Rani Gaidinliu and Rani Velu Nachiyar.

  • PM inaugurates and lays foundation stone of various projects of Shrimad Rajchandra Mission in Valsad district of Gujarat

    Source: The post is based on the articlePM inaugurates and lays foundation stone of various projects of Shrimad Rajchandra Mission in Valsad district of Gujaratpublished in AIR on 5th August 2022.

    What is the News?

    The Prime Minister of India inaugurated and laid the foundation stone of various projects of the Shrimad Rajchandra Mission at Dharampur in Gujarat. 

    About Shrimad Rajchandra Mission

    Shrimad Rajchandra Mission Dharampur is a spiritual movement for inner transformation through wisdom, meditation and selfless service.

    Founded by Pujya Gurudevshri Rakeshji, the organization works through 196 centers on five continents.

    Who was Shrimad Rajchandra?

    Shrimad Rajchandra (1867 – 1901) was a Jain poet, philosopher, scholar and reformer.

    Honoured as Yugpurush, he gave the world a rich heritage that continues to guide generations of seekers, in a short span of 34 years. 

    He wrote a large number of philosophical poems including Atma Siddhi.

    He is best known for his teachings on Jainism and his spiritual guidance to Mahatma Gandhi.

  • Ministry of Culture releases the third Comic book on stories of 20 Tribal Freedom Fighters

    Source: The post is based on the articleMinistry of Culture releases the third Comic book on stories of 20 Tribal Freedom Fighterspublished in PIB on 4th August 2022.

    What is the News?

    The Ministry of Culture has released the third Comic book on stories of 20 Tribal Freedom Fighters at Tiranga Utsav celebration in New Delhi.

    What are the important tribal freedom fighters mentioned in the book?
                Tribal Freedom Fighter                    Contribution
    Tilka Majhi He rebelled against the atrocities of the British East India Company. He mobilised the Pahadia tribe to which he belonged and raided the Company treasury. He was hanged.
    Budhu Bhagat He had led guerrilla warfare against the British. He was a leader of the Larka rebellion in 1832.
    Sidhu and Kanhu Murmu They were the leaders of the Santhal rebellion (1855–1856), the rebellion in present-day Jharkhand and Bengal in eastern India against both the British colonial authority and the corrupt zamindari system.
     Ramji GondHe belonged to the Gond tribe. He rose against the feudal system by which wealthy landlords oppressed the poor with the support of the British. He was caught and hanged.
    Telanga Kharia He refused to accept the tax system of the   British and their governance. He insisted that they follow their traditional method of self-governance and organized raids on the treasury. He was betrayed and shot dead.
    Tantiya BhilHe was known as the Robin Hood of the Central Provinces. He robbed trains carrying British wealth and distributed it among his tribe, the Bhils. 
    Major Paona Brajabasi He fought to defend the kingdom of Manipur. He was the hero of the Anglo-Manipur war.
    Malati MemShe was inspired to join Mahatma Gandhi’s satyagraha movement. She fought against the British monopoly over opium and educated her people about the dangers of opium addiction. 
    Helen Lepcha She was an ardent follower of Mahatma Gandhi. Her influence over her people made the British restless. In 1941, she helped Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose escape from house arrest and travel to Germany. She was awarded the Tamra Patra for her invaluable contribution to the freedom struggle.
    Pulimaya Devi PodarShe heard Gandhi when she was in school and wanted to join the freedom struggle immediately. Despite stiff opposition from her family, she joined the movement. She was imprisoned for her participation in protests. After independence, she continued to serve her people and was awarded the title of ‘Swatantra Sainani’.

     

  • Ministry of Culture organized “TirangaUtsav” to celebrate the contribution of Pingali Venkayya to the nation on the occasion of his 146th Birth Anniversary

    Source: The post is based on the articleMinistry of Culture organized “TirangaUtsav” to celebrate the contribution of Pingali Venkayya to the nation on the occasion of his 146th Birth Anniversary published in PIB on 2nd August 2022.

    What is the News?

    The Ministry of Culture organized “TirangaUtsav” to celebrate the contributions of Pingali Venkayya to the nation on the occasion of his 146th Birth Anniversary.

    The commemorative Postal Stamp in the honor of Pingali Venkayya was also released during the event.

    Who was Pingali Venkayya?

    Pingali Venkayya was a freedom fighter, designer of India’s National Flag and a follower of Gandhian principles.

    He was born on 2nd August 1876 into a Telugu Brahmin family in Bhatlapenumarru, Madras Presidency, British India (today’s Machilipatnam in Andhra Pradesh).

    He was also known as Patti Venkayya because of his research into Cambodia Cotton. Patti means ‘cotton’, which was very important for Machilipatnam, a former port city that became famous for its Kalamkari handloom weaves.

    Contribution to National Flag

    Venkayya designed several models of national flag starting from the one designed in 1921 which was approved by Mahatma Gandhi at a Congress meeting in Vijayawada. 

    This version consisted of two red and green bands; the two bands represented the two major religious communities — the Hindus and the Muslims. The flag also had a charkha which represented Swaraj. On the advice of Mahatma Gandhi, Venkayya added a white band which represented peace. 

    In 1931, concerns were raised about the religious aspect of the flag. Keeping that in mind, a Flag Committee was set up. The committee replaced the red with saffron and changed the order of the colours with saffron on top followed by white and then green. The charkha was placed on the white band in the middle.

    The colours now stood for qualities and not communities; the saffron for courage and sacrifice, white for truth and peace and green for faith and strength. The charkha stood for the welfare of the masses.

    Post-Independence, a national flag committee under President Rajendra Prasad replaced the charkha with the Ashok Chakra.

  • 19th century painting of Raja Serfoji, son stolen from Thanjavur Saraswathi Mahal traced to U.S. museum

    Source: The post is based on the article “19th-century painting of Raja Serfoji, son stolen from Thanjavur Saraswathi Mahal traced to U.S. museum” published in The Hindu on 23rd July 2022.

    What is the News?

    A rare 19th-century painting of Raja Serfoji and his son Sivaji, which was stolen from Saraswathi Mahal, Thanjavur has been traced to the US Museum.

    Who was Maharaja Serfoji?

    Maharaja Serfoji was the last of the Bhonsle Rajas of Thanjavur. He was born in 1777 and died in 1832. 

    His only son Shivaji ruled until 1855. However, he had no male successor.

    Due to this, Thanjavur became a casualty of Lord Dalhousie’s infamous ‘Doctrine of Lapse’ and it got absorbed into British Ruled Indian provinces.

    Contributions of Maharaja Serfoji

    Library: The Sarasvati Mahal Library was founded as a Palace Library by the Nayak Kings of Thanjavur (1535–1675), it was however Serfoji who enriched it with priceless works, maps, dictionaries, coins and artwork.

    Educational Reforms: Serfoji founded a school called Navavidhya Kalanidhi Sala where languages, literature, the sciences and arts and crafts were taught in addition to the Vedas and shastras. 

    – Serfoji is also credited with installing a hand press with Devanagari type in 1805, the first of its kind in South India. He also established a stone-type press called “Nava Vidhya Kalanidhi Varnayanthra Sala“.

    Medicine: Serfoji established the Dhanavantari Mahal, a research institution that produced herbal (indigenous medicine) medicine for humans and animals.

    What is the Doctrine of Lapse?

    The Doctrine of Lapse was an annexation policy followed widely by Lord Dalhousie when he was India’s Governor-General from 1848 to 1856.

    The doctrine declared that if an Indian ruler died without a male heir his kingdom would “lapse”, that is, become part of Company territory. 

    One kingdom after another was annexed simply by applying this doctrine: Satara (1848), Sambalpur (1850), Udaipur (1852), Nagpur (1853), Jhansi (1854) among others.

  • PM launches year-long 125th birth anniversary celebration of legendary freedom fighter Alluri Sitarama Raju in Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh

    Source: The post is based on the articlePM launches year-long 125th birth anniversary celebration of legendary freedom fighter Alluri Sitarama Raju in Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradeshpublished in PIB on 4th July 2022.

    What is the News?

    The Prime Minister has launched the year-long 125th birth anniversary celebration of legendary freedom fighter Alluri Sitarama Raju in Bhimavaram,Andhra Pradesh.

    Who is Alluri Sitarama Raju?

    Alluri Sitarama Raju was born on 4th July 1897. He is remembered for his fight against the British, in order to safeguard the interests of the tribal communities in the Eastern Ghats region. 

    He is referred to as “Manyam Veerudu” (Hero of the Jungles) by the local people.

    He had led the Rampa rebellion which was launched in 1922. 

    He laid down his life for the freedom of the motherland in 1924 at the young age of just 27 years.

    What was the Rampa Rebellion?

    The Rampa Rebellion is also known as the Manyam Rebellion. It was a tribal uprising, led by Alluri Sitarama Raju in Godavari Agency of Madras Presidency, British India. 

    Cause: The Rampa administrative area was home to about 28,000 tribes. These tribes followed the ‘Podu’ system of cultivation whereby every year some amounts of forest tracts were cleared for cultivation, as it was their only source of food. 

    While for the tribes, the forests were essential for their survival, the Britishers wanted to evict them so that they could plunder these areas for wood, which would eventually help in building their railways and ships. 

    To get the forests cleared, ‘The Madras Forest Act, 1882’ was passed, thereby restricting the free movement of the tribal communities and prohibiting them from engaging in their traditional Podu agricultural system. This oppressive order was the beginning of the Rampa Rebellion.

    Ended in: The rebellion began in August 1922 and lasted until the capture and killing of Raju in May 1924.

    Steps taken by Government to remember Alluri Sitarama Raju

    Every year, the Government of Andhra Pradesh commemorates his birth date, the 4th of July, as a state festival

    The birthplace of Alluri Sitarama Raju at Pandrangi in Vizianagaram district and Chintapalli Police Station (to mark 100 years of Rampa Rebellion – the attack on this police station marked the beginning of Rampa Rebellion) will be restored. 

    The government has also approved the construction of Alluri Dhyana Mandir at Mogallu with a statue of Alluri Sitarama Raju in Dhyana Mudra, depicting the life story of the freedom fighter through mural paintings and AI-enabled interactive systems.

  • Bartholomaeus Ziegenbalg: First copy of Tamil Bible stolen from Saraswathi Mahal Library traced to London
    What is the News?

    The first Tamil translation of the Bible which was reportedly stolen from Saraswathi Mahal Library, Thanjavur, has been traced by Idol Wing CID Police to London.

    First Tamil Translation of Bible

    The first Tamil translation of the Bible was printed in 1715 by Bartholomaeus Ziegenbalg, a missionary. 

    It was presented to Tulaji Rajah Serfoji by Schwartz, another missionary and a close friend of the King. 

    After the takeover by the Tamil Nadu government, the antiquarian book became an exhibit in the Saraswati Mahal Museum for public viewing. 

    Who was Bartholomaeus Ziegenbalg?

    Bartholomaeus Ziegenbalg was born in Saxony in 1682. He was a Danish missionary. 

    In 1706, he arrived in Tranquebar (Tharangambadi), a tiny Danish colony on the east coast, close to Nagapattinam in Tamil Nadu, on the southeast coast of India, as the first Protestant missionaries in that country.

    He soon set up a printing press and published studies of the Tamil language and Indian religion and culture. He died in 1719, at age 37. 

    He left behind a Tamil translation of the Bible, many brief writings in Tamil, two church buildings, the seminary and baptized Christians.

    Source: The post is based on the article “First copy of Tamil Bible stolen from Saraswathi Mahal Library traced to London” published in The Hindu on 2nd July 2022.

  • P.C. Mahalanobis: Remembering the ‘Plan Man’ of India
    What is the News?

    June 29, is national ‘Statistics Day’, in ‘recognition of the contributions made by Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis’, the ‘Plan Man’ of India; it is also his birthday.

    What are the contributions of P.C. Mahalanobis?

    P.C. Mahalanobis is referred to as the chief architect of the Indian statistical system as well as the father of statistical science in India.

    Believed in Data: Mahalanobis clearly believed data to be instrumental in efficient planning for national and human development. Planning in the newly independent nation in the 1950s was largely based on the data obtained from various surveys.

    Contribution to Statistics:

    -Mahalanobis established the Statistical Laboratory within the Baker Laboratory at Presidency College.

    -In 1931, he established the Indian Statistical Institute (ISI) in Kolkata.

    -In 1933, Mahalanobis founded Sankhyā, the Indian Journal of Statistics.

    Other contributions:

    -Mahalanobis helped in the establishment of the Central Statistical Organisation (CSO), the National Sample Survey (NSS) and the Annual Survey of Industries (ASI).

    -Mahalanobis also served as the Chairman of the United Nations Sub-Commission on Statistical Sampling.

    -In 1936, he introduced a statistical measure named the Mahalanobis distance. It is widely used in cluster analysis and classification techniques.

    -He also devised a statistical method called ‘Fractile Graphical Analysis’. This method is used to compare the socio-economic conditions of varied groups.

    -The Mahalanobis model was employed in the Second Five Year Plan. The model laid the blueprint for industrialisation and development in India.

    Honours: In 1968, he was honoured with the Padma Vibhushan.

    P.C. Mahalanobis’s Friendship with Rabindranath Tagore

    Tagore treated Mahalanobis as a close confidant, despite an age gap of 32 years. Mahalanobis first met Tagore at Santiniketan in 1910.

    Accompanied Tagore on multiple occasions: Mahalanobis accompanied Tagore on many of his international visits, mostly in the 1920s.

    When Tagore met Einstein in 1930, Mahalanobis was also with him. In fact, Einstein asked Tagore about a young scientist named Bose. Mahalanobis then informed Tagore about Satyendra Nath Bose, who would be ever-remembered for Boson.

    Mahalanobis’s literary works about Tagore: He wrote a series of essays titled ‘Rabindra Parichay’ (‘Introduction to Rabindra’) for the prestigious Bengali magazine, Probashi. He also wrote a book, Rabindranath Tagore’s Visit to Canada in 1929.

    Helped in Tagore’s dream project: Mahalanobis helped Tagore immensely in his dream project — the founding of Visva Bharati. He also served as a joint secretary of Visva Bharati for 10 years from the beginning.

    Tagore’s dance drama, ‘Basanta’ (meaning ‘Spring’), had a premier at the Calcutta University institute auditorium on Mahalanobis’ marriage day. Tagore attended the marriage ceremony and presented them with the manuscript of ‘Basanta’.

    Source: The post is based on the article “Remembering the ‘Plan Man’ of India” published in “The Hindu” on 29th June 2022.

  • National Monuments Authority observes Martyrdom Day of Baba Banda Singh Bahadur at Red Fort
    What is the News?

    The National Monuments Authority has observed the Martyrdom Day of the great warrior Baba Banda Singh Bahadur at Red Fort in New Delhi.

    Who was Baba Banda Singh Bahadur?

    Baba Banda Singh Bahadur was a great Sikh warrior.

    Contributions: He was a commander of the Khalsa army who defeated the Mughals and liberated a large part of North India from the oppressive Mughal rule and established the Khalsa rule in Punjab. 

    He abolished the Zamindari system and granted property rights to the tillers of the land. 

    He introduced the Nanak Shahi coins. 

    Death: He was captured by Mughal ruler Farrukhsiyar and his martyrdom took place in Mehrauli where a monument stands in his memory.

    Click Here to read more about him

    Source: The post is based on the articleNational Monuments Authority observes Martyrdom Day of Baba Banda Singh Bahadur at Red Fortpublished in PIB on 25th June 2022.

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