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Philosophy Guide for UPSC 2017

INDIAN PHILOSOPHY

Charvaka : Theory of Knowledge; Rejection of Transcendental Entities.

Jainism: Theory of Reality; Saptabhanginaya; Bondage and Liberation.

Schools of Buddhism: Prati-tyasamutpa-da; Ksanikavada, Naira-tmyava-da

Nyaya- Vais’esika: Theory of Categories; Theory of Appearance; Theory of Prama-na; Self, Liberation; God; Proofs for the Existence of God; Theory of Causation; Atomistic Theory of Creation.

Sa-mkhya: Prakrti; Purusa; Causation; Liberation

Yoga: Citta; Cittavrtti; Klesas; Samadhi; Kaivalya.

Mima-msa-: Theory of Knowledge

Schools of Veda-nta: Brahman; I-s’vara; A-tman; Jiva; Jagat; Ma-ya-; Avidya-; Adhya-sa; Moksa; Aprthaksiddhi; Pancavidhabheda

Aurobindo: Evolution, Involution; Integral Yoga.

 

WESTERN PHILOSOPHY

Plato and Aristotle: Ideas; Substance; Form and Matter; Causation; Actuality and Potentiality.

Rationalism (Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz): Cartesian Method and Certain Knowledge; Substance; God; Mind-Body Dualism; Determinism and Freedom.

Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley, Hume): Theory of Knowledge; Substance and Qualities; Self and God; Scepticism.

Kant: Possibility of Synthetic a priori Judgments; Space and Time; Categories; Ideas of Reason; Antinomies; Critique of Proofs for the Existence of God

Hegel: Dialectical Method; Absolute Idealism

Moore, Russell and Early Wittgenstein: Defence of Commonsense; Refutation of Idealism; Logical Atomism; Logical Constructions; Incomplete Symbols; Picture Theory of Meaning; Saying and Showing.

Logical Positivism: Verification Theory of Meaning; Rejection of Metaphysics; Linguistic Theory of Necessary Propositions.

Later Wittgenstein: Meaning and Use; Language-games; Critique of Private Language.

Phenomenology (Husserl): Method; Theory of Essences; Avoidance of Psychologism.

Existentialism (Kierkegaard, Sartre, Heidegger): Existence and Essence; Choice, Responsibility and Authentic Existence; Being-in-the –world and Temporality.

Quine and Strawson: Critique of Empiricism; Theory of Basic Particulars and Persons.

 

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