JUSTICE – The term Justice in the Preamble embraces three distinct forms: Social, economic and political.
1) Social justice in the Preamble means that the Constitution wants to create a more equitable society based on equal social status.
2) Economic justice means equitable distribution of wealth among the individual members of the society so that wealth is not concentrated in a few hands. Economic justice is the main aim of the state as envisaged by Directive Principles. (Concept of welfare State)
3) Political Justice means that all citizens have equal rights in political participation. Indian Constitution provides for universal adult suffrage and equal value for each vote.
LIBERTY –Liberty comes from the Latin root word “liber” meaning freedom. It is the opportunity to develop oneself fully.
1) The Constitution (Supreme Law of Land) secures to all citizens liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship through Fundamental Rights, which are enforceable in the Court of Law. (Art.19). Indian Constitution embodies the concept of Positive liberty. For liberty to be enjoyed by everyone there should be reasonable restraints. The freedom of many requires restraint of law on freedom of some, hence it is said that “If there are no laws, there is no liberty”.
2) The Ideals of “Liberty, Equality and Fraternity” are taken from the French Revolution. “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity” has also given an influence as natural law to the First Article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In Indian constitution apart from preamble these are well reflected in fundamental rights and directive principles as well.
EQUALITY – The term ‘equality’ means absence of special privileges to any section of the society and the provision of adequate opportunities for all individuals without any discrimination. The Preamble secures to all citizens equality of status and opportunity. This provision embraces three dimensions of equality – civic, political and economic.
FRATERNITY– Fraternity means a sense of brotherhood. According to the Preamble, fraternity assures two things – (1) dignity of the individual (2) Unity and integrity of the nation. The word ‘integrity’ was added by the 42nd Amendment Act, 1976.
Importance of Objectives: It provides a way of life. It includes fraternity, liberty, and equality as the notion of a happy life and which cannot be taken from each other.
1) Liberty cannot be divorced from equality; equality cannot be divorced from liberty; nor can liberty and equality be divorced from fraternity.
2) Without equality, liberty would produce the supremacy of the few over the many.
3) Equality without liberty would kill individual initiative.
4) Without fraternity, liberty would produce the supremacy of the few over the many.
5) Without fraternity, liberty and equality could not become a natural course of things